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File Created: 17-Sep-1992 by Keith J. Mountjoy (KJM)
Last Edit:  25-Jan-2021 by Karl A. Flower (KAF)

Summary Help Help

NMI 094E6 Pb2
BCGS Map 094E045
Status Prospect NTS Map 094E06E
Latitude 057º 26' 15'' UTM 09 (NAD 83)
Longitude 127º 08' 39'' Northing 6367609
Easting 611403
Commodities Gold, Silver, Lead, Zinc, Copper Deposit Types H05 : Epithermal Au-Ag: low sulphidation
Tectonic Belt Intermontane Terrane Stikine
Capsule Geology

The JD (Finn) mineral prospect is located approximately 4.5 kilometres north-northeast of the Kadah Lake and 4.5 kilometres south of Oxide Peak, some 280 kilometres north of Smithers. It lies within the Omineca-Cassiar mountains at the southern end of the Toodoggone gold camp. See also Gumbo (094E 065), Gasp (094E 168), Eos (094E 169) and Schmitt (094E 170).

The JD (Finn) prospect is situated within a Mesozoic volcanic arc assemblage which lies along the eastern margin of the Intermontane Belt, a northwest-trending belt of Paleozoic to Tertiary sediments, volcanics and intrusions bounded to the east by the Omineca Belt and to the west and southwest by the Sustut and Bowser basins.

Permian Asitka Group crystalline limestones are the oldest rocks exposed in the region. They are commonly in thrust contact with Upper Triassic Takla Group andesite flows and pyroclastic rocks. These Takla rocks have been intruded by plutons and other bodies of the mainly granodiorite to quartz monzonite Early Jurassic Black Lake Suite and are in turn unconformably overlain by or faulted against Lower Jurassic calcalkaline volcanics of the Toodoggone Formation, Hazelton Group.

The Finn zone is one of many gold and silver showings on the JD property associated with a property scale northeast striking low angle fault. Mineralization throughout the property is associated with silica and clay altered volcanic rocks and quartz cemented breccias cut by quartz and carbonate veins and vein stockwork. Lower grade material is widespread and is associated with the mineralized footwall and hanging wall to this large low angle fault. Several styles of structurally controlled gold and silver mineralization exist on the property including quartz-carbonate-sulphide veins, brecciated and silicified sulphide bearing volcaniclastic rocks, and thick, pervasive, polyphase silicified and clay altered zones. The Finn Zzne has been the target of by far the most historic drill holes.

The dominant structures in the area are steeply dipping faults which define a prominent regional northwest structural fabric trending 140 to 170 degrees. In turn, high angle, northeast-striking faults (approximately 060 degrees) appear to truncate and displace northwest-striking faults. Collectively these faults form a boundary for variably rotated and tilted blocks underlain by monoclinal strata.

The JD (Finn) prospect is underlain by a thick succession of Lower Jurassic volcanics of the Metsantan Member of the Toodoggone Formation. To the west, a low angle thrust (?) fault separates the Metsantan Member from the overlying McClair Member. The Metsantan Member consists of latite flows with lenses of lapilli tuff, and lahar; minor volcanic sandstone and conglomerate (Bulletin 86). The overlying McClair Member consists of heterogeneous, lapilli to block tuff, andesitic flows and numerous cogenetic dikes and subvolcanic plugs; minor mudstone and conglomerate (Bulletin 86). Both members are dominated by flows and flow breccias around the JD-Finn prospect (Assessment report 18015). This sequence is cut by a series of steeply dipping diabasic and rhyolitic dikes.

Alteration around the JD (Finn) is structurally controlled and ranges from weak propylitic to intense silicic, argillic and sericitic. Propylitic alteration is the most widespread and important alteration type of prospects in the area, either hosting mineralized veins or forming haloes around more intensely altered and mineralized systems. Propylitic alteration consists of replacement of plagioclase phenocrysts by epidote or hematite and mafic phenocrysts by chlorite, epidote, actinolite, talc and disseminated calcite (Assessment Report 18015). At the JD (Finn) intense silicic alteration is pervasive. Quartz, pyrite and sericite almost completely replace primary textures. Silicification is often accompanied by argillic alteration or specular or red hematite.

The JD (Finn) prospect is characterized by what appears to be a structurally controlled silicified zone. The zone is generally east-trending and carries gold-silver and native gold mineralization with associated galena, sphalerite, pyrite and minor chalcopyrite. The JD (Finn) prospect represents a significant induced polarization chargeability anomaly covering an area of at least 500 square metres. There is a strong suggestion that the anomaly reflects the downdip alteration mineralization of the Gumbo zone of the JD-M2 prospect (094E 065).

More recent work described the JD-Finn zone as being hosted in a northeast- (290 degrees) striking and gently dipping (35 degrees) siliceous breccia that has been variously interpreted as a low angle normal fault or a volcaniclastic horizon. The hangingwall is predominantly locally porphyritic andesite, and the footwall of crystal ash tuffs; although, both units contain interbeds of comparable lithologies. The Finn zone consists of a core of strongly silica-clay-sericite–altered breccias mineralized with disseminated and vein-hosted pyrite with lesser sphalerite, galena and chalcopyrite. Peripheral to the high-grade core, the alteration grades into sericite-chlorite-pyrite and distal epidote-chlorite±hematite. Another notable characteristic of Finn zone geology was the change from more silica-dominated breccia in the west to clay-dominated breccia in the east, possibly a result of surface-weathering processes as the zone outcrops in the east. Magnetism was noted to decrease across the Finn Zone in drillcore, probably a result of destruction of primary magnetite in the andesite.

Work History

Using the placer gold occurrences on McClair Creek as a focus, Sumac Mines Ltd. (an exploration subsidiary of Sumitomo Metal Mining Canada Ltd.) conducted an extensive geochemical investigation of drainages north of the Toodoggone River. In 1971, this work resulted in the discovery and staking of the Moose property (now the Porphyry Pearl), the McClair property (now the JD) and later the Al property (now the Ranch), in 1972. Sumac conducted exploration work on the JD through 1974, comprising soil and rock geochemical surveys, IP, SP and magnetometer surveys, geological mapping, hand trenching and one 122 metre diamond drill hole. This work confirmed the presence of bedrock gold mineralization in the vicinity of what are now known as the Gasp, Gumbo and Finn showings.

The claims were subsequently allowed to lapse and were re-staked by T.C. Scott and Petra-Gem Exploration Ltd., who optioned the property to Energex Minerals Ltd. in 1979, which in turn farmed out the property to Kidd Creek Mines (formerly Texasgulf Canada Ltd.) in 1980. Kidd Creek conducted four years of exploration work comprising geological mapping, trenching, geochemical and geophysical surveys and diamond drilling. Sample 26008, taken in 1983, analysed 18.55 grams per tonne gold and 1348.0 grams per tonne silver. Another sample (25974) analysed 5.25 grams per tonne gold and 1790.0 grams per tonne silver (Assessment Report 11843).

Subsequent to the termination of the Kidd Creek option in 1984, Energex continued with a similar regime of exploration through to 1988 with an aggressive trenching program and minimal diamond drilling. The J.D. property was one of three claim groups held by Energex and received only modest exploration consisting of prospecting, geological mapping, soil and rock sampling, trenching and 16 diamond drill holes totalling 1829 metres. Trenching, in 1988, uncovered several low to medium grade gold and silver mineralized intersections over 2 to 10 metres widths, in a mineralized area covering 500 square metres. One of the better intersections was from trench JD88-73 from which samples of sulphide-bearing quartz-calcite veins yielded 6.65 grams per tonne gold and 9.5 grams per tonne silver over 1.0 metre (Assessment Report 18015).

Little work was carried out on the JD property until 1994 when it was acquired under option by AGC Americas Gold Corporation. An aggressive, multi-disciplined exploration program, dominated by extensive diamond drilling, was conducted by AGC through 1996 and with the joint venture partner, Antares Mining and Exploration Ltd. in 1997 and 1998. During AGC's tenure, approximately 237 drill holes were completed, for a total in excess of 19,400 meters.

In 1994, AGC carried out detailed geological mapping, soil and rock sampling, induced polarization surveys and 32 diamond drill holes, totalling 2072 metres. This program resulted in the discovery of the epithermal gold-silver Finn zone. Seventeen holes tested the Finn zone over a strike length of 180 metres and partially outlined a tabular, shallow-dipping body with an average width of 13.7 metres. The drilling partially defined a moderately north-dipping, 45-metre thick zone over a strike length of 115 metres yielding a weighted average grade of 4.40 grams per tonne gold (Assessment Report 23663). Markedly higher grades were present in both the hangingwall and footwall of the zone with an average of 6.64 grams per tonne gold over an average width of 3.81 metres for the upper or hangingwall zone and 8.45 grams per tonne gold over an average width of 3.11 metres for the lower or footwall zone (Assessment Report 23663). This work reportedly identified a possible 147 889 tonnes grading 4.40 grams per tonne gold in the Finn zone (Assessment Report 23663).

Also at this time, prospecting and surface sampling identified a zone, referred to as the Vent zone, of bleached and silicified feldspar hornblende porphyry hosting vuggy and drusy quartz breccia with limonite-jarosite-goethite matrix located approximately 400 metres north-northwest of the Finn zone. A grab sample (94-M-JD-R-007) assayed 7.77 grams per tonne gold and 245.0 grams per tonne silver (Assessment Report 23663).

In 1995 AGC carried out a program of geological mapping, Induced Polarization surveys and 104 diamond drill holes totalling 8229 metres (Assessment Report 24284). The program principally focused on defining the Finn Zone, with additional exploration work on the EOS, Woof and Creek zones. Four holes drilled on the Schmitt and Woof zones yielded inconclusive results. This program led to the definition of a geological resource of 11,477 kilograms (369,000 ounces) of gold.

In 1995, drilling tested the Finn zone over a strike length of 350 metres and to a depth of approximately 120 metres. The zone was reported to be interpreted to be a fault-displaced block that has moved approximately 120 to 150 metres in a south-southwest direction. The drilling also identified a sub-parallel zone in the footwall of the Finn zone with several drill holes returning significant gold values, indicating that a second system or an off-shoot of the Finn zone system underlies the Finn zone with intersections approximately 60 metres below the Finn zone. Significant intercepts included 6.8 grams per tonne gold over 17.43 metres in hole JD95-41 to 109.3 grams per tonne gold over 2.0 metres, including 214.9 grams per tonne gold over 1.0 metre, in hole JD95-47 (Assessment Report 24284).

Drilling indicated a probable and possible resource of 488 370 tonnes grading 6.33 grams per tonne gold was reported for the Finn zone at this time (Assessment Report 24284).

In 1996 AGC conducted a further 6096 metres of diamond drilling on the property focusing on delineation drilling of the Finn Zone (Hawkins, 1997). The Gumbo zone was also drilled. The Gumbo zone appears to be the up-dip, western extension of the Finn zone. The company now believes they are targeting a structurally controlled 600 X 400 metre, east-west trending zone with a central (epithermal-style) brecciated and silicified gold zone, enveloped by a large stockwork zone of quartz carbonate veining with polymetallic disseminated and massive sulphides.

In 1997 AGC / Antaries conducted an aggressive exploration program on the JD and AL properties completing 10,632 metres of diamond drilling in 76 holes. Drilling was principally focussed on the Bonanza and Thesis zones on the Al property and the Finn and Creek zones on the JD property. A total of 7356 metres were drilled this year in 49 holes on the JD. Most of the drilling focused on further defining the Finn zone, a 9-metre wide tabular vein and breccia body which total of 27 holes were drilled on the Finn zone. Six other had been traced by drilling for more than 350 metres.

In 1997, AGC/Antaries conducted an airborne magnetic and electromagnetic survey over the JD property (Assessment Report 25587).

Exploration in 1998 was carried out in two phases. The first phase of drilling consisted of additional evaluation of the Creek Zone and the second phase of exploration was focused on evaluating the Orest Zone. The evaluation of the Creek zone consisted of the completion of seven closely-spaced NQ diamond drill holes close to the discovery hole (CZ-97-08).

AGC acquired all the Toodoggone properties in July 1999. AGC is a subsidiary of Enterprises Inc. Antares became Canesa Capital Corporation in September 1999.

In 2008, Duran Ventures conducted a 749.8 kilometres airborne magnetic survey over the JD property. This survey provided information on major rock units, discrete sets of north-northwest and northeast trending faults, small intrusive bodies and associated dike swarms, and at least one nested caldera which was not previously recognized by surface work. The high grade Creek Zone and the neighboring Porphyry Pearl prospect (094E 084) are associated with north-northwest trending and intersecting northeast structures in a zone of complex magnetic signatures which suggest the presence of multiple discrete high level intrusive bodies. The Creek Zone and the Porphyry Pearl targets appear to follow a north-northwest structural trend. The gently dipping host structure for the Finn Zone is not as obvious from the magnetic data. The survey included the areas that contained documented MINFILE occurrences 094E 065 (Gumbo (M2)), 126 (Belle North), 168 (Gasp (M1)), 169 (EOS), 170 (Woof (M3)), 171 (JD (Finn)), 187 (Air), 234 (Tarn) and 236 (Creek).

By 2012, the JD project comprised 43 claims (15734 hectares) including 28 claims owned (100 per cent) by Tower (8467 hectares), with the remainder under option from private individuals: T. C. Scott (8 claims, 5575 hectares) and C. Greig (7 claims, 1691 hectares).

In 2012, 18 diamond drill holes were completed for a total of 2966 metres; 106 grab samples were collected from known areas of mineralization and new areas identified by Tower; and, 2067 soil samples were collected over areas that contained previously documented occurrences: 094E 065 (Gumbo (M2)), 126 (Belle North), 168 (Gasp (M1)), 169 (EOS), 170 (Woof (M3)), 171 (JD (Finn)), 187 (Air), 234 (Tarn) and 236 (Creek). Drillholes in 2012 included 11 confirmation holes on the Finn zone and 6 more exploration holes in the JD vicinity. Two holes JD-12-017 and 018 were drilled on the Moosehorn zone (094E 260) located 7.8 kilometers southwest of the Finn zone. The primary goal of Tower’s 2012 field season was to confirm the grade and extent of an unofficial and non NI 43-101 compliant gold resource at JD, defined by greater than 200 historical drill holes. The 11 drill holes (JD-12-001 through -011) on the main Finn zone yielded an average of 3.0 grams per tonne gold and 33.6 grams per tonne silver over 23.8 metres, including 8.8 grams per tonne gold and 64.5 grams per tonne silver over 15.6 metres in hole JD-12-003 (Assessment Report 33556).

Another drill hole, JD-12-009, was completed 115 metres to the south east of JD-12-003 to test the continuity of gold mineralization in the footwall to the Finn zone. From surface to 56 metres, the hole intersected a strongly mineralized zone that includes four separate zones, including: 18 metres of 1.74 grams per tonne gold, 11 metres of 2.48 grams per tonne gold, 2 metres of 10.38 grams per tonne gold, and 5 metres of 0.70 gram per tonne gold (

Another step-out drillhole (JD-12-015) was collared approximately 400 metres north of the Finn zone on a large gossan and intersected 56 metres of disseminated pyrite±sphalerite hosted in strongly silica-sericite–altered and locally hydrothermally micro-brecciated andesite yielding five separate zones of mineralization including 1.55 grams per tonne gold over 20 metres and 2.43 grams per tonne gold over 5 metres (Assessment Report 33556). This zone was reported to possibly represent a downdip extension of the Finn zone, though the style of mineralization did not resemble the siliceous breccia commonly associated with the Finn zone.

In 2013, Tower Resources Ltd. completed a program of rock sampling, 20.0 line-kilometres of ground magnetic induced polarization surveys and 10 diamond drill holes, totalling 2140.0 metres, on the JD property. The diamond drill program (holes JD-13-019 through -023) was designed to investigate the continuity of gold and silver mineralization between the Finn zone and step-out drillhole JD-12-015 from the previous year, and the extent of mineralization along strike to the west and east from the Finn zone. Drilling results included 2.28 grams per tonne gold over 5 metres in hole JD-13-020, located near the previous step-out hole JD-12-015 (Assessment Report 34762).

In 2015 and 2017, Freeport-McMoran Mineral Properties Canada Inc. completed programs of geological mapping, rock sampling and a 13.8 line-kilometre induced polarization survey on the JD property. In 2018, Freeport-McMoran completed a further program of geological mapping, rock sampling, a 42.8 line-kilometre induced polarization survey, a 671 line-kilometre airborne magnetic survey and two diamond drill holes, totalling 1294.1 metres, on the JD property.

EMPR EXPL 1975-E163-E167; 1976-E175-E177; 1977-E216-E217; 1978-E244-E246; 1979-265-267; 1980-421-436; 1982-330-345; 1983-475-488; 1984-348-357; 1985-C349-C362; 1986-C388-C414; 1987-C328-C346; 1988-C185-C194; 1996-C10; 1997-25; 1998-33-45
EMPR Explore B.C. Program 95/96 - M21
EMPR FIELDWORK 1980, pp. 124-129; 1981, pp. 122-129, 135-141; 1982, pp. 125-127; 1983, pp. 137-138, 142-148; 1984, pp. 139-145, 291-293; 1985, pp. 167-169, 299; 1987, pp. 111, 114-115; 1989, pp. 409-415; 1990, pp. 207-216
EMPR GEM 1969-103; 1971-63-71; 1972-483; 1973-456-463; 1974-313
EMPR GEOLOGY 1977-1981, pp. 156-161
EMPR INF CIRC 1994-19, p. 23; 1995-1, p. 21; 1995-9, p. 22; 1996-1, p. 22; *1997-1, pp. 27,28; 1998-1, p. 27
EMPR MAP 61 (1985)
EMPR PF (Photogeologic Interpretation Map of the Northern Omineca area, (Oct. 1964), Canadian Superior Exploration Limited-in 94E General File; Toodoggone Project New Release, (2 Dec, 1983), Energex Minerals Ltd.; Toodoggone Project New Release, (27 July, 1984), Energex Minerals Ltd.; Toodoggone Project New Release, (21 August, 1984), Energex Minerals Ltd.; Toodoggone Project New Release, (8 November, 1984), Energex Minerals Ltd.; Annual Report, (1984), Energex Minerals Ltd.; AGC Americas Gold Corp. and Antares Mining and Exploration Corporation Websites (May 1999): Toodoggone Properties, 13 p.)
GSC OF 306; 483
GSC P 76-1A, pp. 87-90; 80-1A, pp. 27-32
ECON GEOL Vol. 86, pp. 529-554, 1991
GCNL #123 (June26), #141, #163 (Aug.23), #243 (Dec.15), 1984; #23 (Feb.1), 1985; #165 (Aug.27), 1986; #244 (Dec.21), 1994; *#9 (Jan.13), #128 (Jul.5), #138 (Jul.19), #144 (Jul.27), #148 (Aug.2), #153 (Aug.10), #158 (Aug.17), #164 (Aug.25), #171 (Sep.6), #178 (Sep.15), #180 (Sep.19), #186 (Sep.27), #196 (Oct.12), #207 (Oct.27), #239 (Dec.13), 1995; #21 (Jan.30), #25 (Feb.5), #30 (Feb.12), 1996; #235 (Dec.8), 1997; #47 (Mar.9), 1998
IPDM Nov/Dec 1983
MIN REV September/October, 1982; July/August, 1986; Winter 1996/97, pp. 36,37
N MINER Sept.23,30, Oct.28, 1982; Dec.15, 1983; Aug.2,16,23, 1984; June 16, Oct.13, 1986; Jan.1, 1996; May 4, 1998
N MINER MAG March 1988, p. 1
PR REL AGC Americas Gold Corp., Sept. 10, 1996
W MINER April, 1982
WIN Vol. 1, #7, June 1987