The White Pass prospect, on the Brenda property, is located approximately 7.5 kilometres due east of the Shasta occurrence (094E 050), some 280 kilometres north of Smithers. There are 4 mineralized zones on the Brenda property: the White Pass area (Brenda zone), the Creek zone (094E 107), the EB zone (094E 148) and the Takla zone (094E 146).
The prospect lies within the Omineca-Cassiar Mountains at the southern end of the Toodoggone gold camp. The occurrence is situated within a Mesozoic volcanic arc assemblage which lies along the eastern margin of the Intermontane Belt, a northwest- trending belt of Paleozoic to Tertiary sediments, volcanics and intrusions bounded to the east by the Omineca Belt and to the west and southwest by the Sustut and Bowser basins.
Permian Asitka Group crystalline limestones are the oldest rocks exposed in the region. They are commonly in thrust contact with Takla (Stuhini) Group andesite flows and pyroclastic rocks. These Takla rocks have been intruded by plutons and other bodies of the mainly granodiorite to quartz monzonite Early Jurassic Black Lake Suite and are in turn unconformably overlain by or faulted against Lower Jurassic calcalkaline volcanics of the Toodoggone Formation, Hazelton Group.
The dominant structures in the area are steeply-dipping faults which define a prominent regional northwest structural fabric trending 140 to 170 degrees. In turn, high angle northeast-striking faults (approximately 060 degrees) appear to truncate and displace northwest-striking faults. Collectively these faults form a boundary for variably rotated and tilted blocks underlain by monoclinal strata.
The White Pass prospect is underlain by rocks of the Toodoggone Formation. Regional mapping has identified hornblende-plagioclase and plagioclase phyric andesite flows, tuffs and breccias with lesser lahar, conglomerate, greywacke and siltstone. Immediately to the east of the prospect a subcircular quartz diorite to granodiorite stock, 1.75 kilometres in diameter, is exposed. This stock is probably related to the Black Lake stock (part of the Black Lake Suite) situated 3.7 kilometres to the southwest.
The White Pass zone mineralization occurs mainly within intermediate volcanic rocks of the Toodoggone Formation and is characterized by a central zone of strongly potassic-altered latite with narrow quartz-magnetite stockworks. The potassic-altered zone is capped by a conspicuous zone of argillic alteration and surrounded by an intense phyllic (quartz-sericite-pyrite) alteration that averages 100 to 150 metres in width and carries weak gold-copper mineralization. The potassic-altered gold-copper zone has been traced on surface and by drilling over a strike length of 500 metre with widths of 300 to 400 metres and to a depth of 560 metres. The deep mineralization is open along strike and to depth. Sulphide mineralization also occurs beneath and surrounding the large quartz-alunite cap located approximately 1000 metres to the east.
In the potassic alteration zone, mineralization consists mainly of well-developed 1 to 5 millimetre in size quartz±magnetite±pyrite ±chalcopyrite veinlets, locally with epidote, that have formed crosscutting stockworks. Veinlets are not as prominent in propylitic and phyllic alteration zones but do contain pyrite and minor chalcopyrite as fine-grained disseminations and clots. Veinlets of gypsum are widespread in both propylitic and argillic alteration zones. Anhydrite occurs in short veins and irregular dilational openings, especially in the phyllic alteration zone.
In the phyllic alteration zones, sulphide mineralization consists mainly of widespread 2 to 3 per cent disseminated pyrite but can exceed 10 per cent when present as grains in quartz+/-magnetite veinlets, on fractures and as patchy, fine-grained replacements. Chalcopyrite is erratically distributed and occurs in small aggregates and in quartz+/-magnetite veinlets. Molybdenite was noted as rare small grains in quartz veinlets. Dark brown to black sphalerite and lesser galena occur as disseminations and as fracture fillings primarily in a zone 500-metres wide that encompasses the phyllic and propylitic alteration zones, resulting in a broad zinc-lead geochemical halo.
The White Pass zone is cut by a swarm of eight or more, 8- to 45-metre-thick post-mineral monzonite dikes with an average strike of 132 degrees and dipping 77 degrees southwest. The dikes have bleached and altered the potassic and phyllic-altered areas to a pale green siliceous sericite-pyrite rock and lowered the grades near the dike contacts. Locally the post mineral dikes have assimilated sections of the potassic quartz–magnetite stockwork.
Drilling and modelling have identified a main mineralized (MZ) zone with a higher grade (HGZ) core zone(s). The trend of the mineralized zone follows an azimuth of 315 degrees and dips 30 degrees northeast. This orientation could be due to faults running northwest-southeast causing fault blocks to drop down to the northeast. This is evident in the shape for the HGZ as it appears to step down to the northeast. Drilling models indicate that the MZ zone averages 0.410 gram per tonne gold, 2.74 grams per tonne silver and 0.066 per cent copper over an approximate dimension of 1000 by 400 metres and from 100 to 600 metres thick, while the HGZ averages 0.659 gram per tonne gold, 3.32 grams per tonne silver and 0.092 per cent copper over an approximate dimension of 200 by 300 metres and 150 metres thick (Lane, B.A. (2017-09-12): NI 43-101 Technical Report on the Brenda Gold-Copper Project - White Pass Zone, Brenda Gold-Copper Project).
In 1950, the first claims in the area were staked by Emil Bronlund who discovered auriferous quartz veins in Jock and Red creeks drainages.
The Brenda claims were staked in 1980 for Canmine Development Company Inc. In 1981, Canmine carried out a program of geology and geophysics. In 1982 and 1983, Golden Rule Resources Ltd. completed programs of prospecting, geological mapping, geochemical (rock, silt and soil) sampling and airborne geophysical surveys on the area as the Jock 1-5 claims. In 1984, hand trenching and prospecting was conducted. In 1985, Canmine optioned the property to Canasil Resources. Detailed mapping, geophysical surveys and soil sampling were conducted along Jock Creek. In 1987, trenching and geochemical surveys were completed in a joint venture with Cyprus Gold Canada Inc. In 1988, 12 drillholes were completed on the Creek zone, the EB zone and the Takla zone.
In 1989, trenching and geophysical and geochemical surveys were completed. This work identified an extensive zone of quartz breccia and stockwork associated with a zone of intense argillic alteration. Trenching traced the mineralization over a 300 metre by 60 metre area and indicated that the zone was open in all directions. A total of 135 panel samples at 1-metre intervals were collected from the trenches. The best assay results were from trench IP-WPG-3 over a 3-metre interval (82 to 85 metres). The results were 1.62 grams per tonne gold, 2.86 grams per tonne silver, 0.0245 per cent copper, 0.0179 per cent lead and 0.0129 per cent zinc (Assessment Report 20963). Other trench sampling results for gold are as follows: trench IP-WPG-5 analyzed 1.21 grams per tonne gold over 12 metres including 6 metres of 1.43 grams per tonne and 5 metres of 1.13 grams per tonne; and trench IP-WPG-8 analysed 1.41 grams per tonne gold over 2 metres (Assessment Report 20963).
In 1990, a strong soil geochemistry anomaly at the White Pass location was tested by 418 linear metres of backhoe trenching in ten trenches. Trenching uncovered weakly mineralized quartz-chalcedony stringers and breccias in highly sheared, fractured and altered trachyandesite. Argillic and propylitic alteration were pervasive throughout the trenches. Sampling of trenches yielded values of up to 1.62 grams per tonne gold over 3 metres in trench WGP-3, 1.12 and 0.90 grams per tonne gold over 16 and 17 metres, respectively, in trench WGP-5 and 0.82 gram per tonne gold over 5 metres in trench WPG-8 (Property File - Canasil Resources Inc. (2001-02-01): Report on the Brenda Property)
In 1991, hand trenching and rock sampling were completed on the White Pass East zone, the EB zone and the Creek zone. A geochemical survey was completed on the White Pass East zone. Six samples (12183 to 12188) from trench 13 on the White Pass zone yielded values ranging from 0.61 to 1.42 grams per tonne gold and 1.9 to 4.2 grams per tonne silver (Assessment Report 22272).
In 1992, two drillholes were completed on the Creek zone, four drillholes on the White Pass East zone and seven holes on the EB zone. Drilling in the White Pass area intersected disseminated and vein stockwork mineralization. Mineralization consisted of pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena yielded intercepts of up to 0.912 gram per tonne gold and 0.165 per cent copper over 8.6 metres, including 1.240 grams per tonne gold and 0.179 per cent copper over 3.0 metres and 0.771 gram per tonne gold with 0.190 per cent copper over 9.5 metres in hole WP92-03 and 0.915 gram per tonne gold over 26.6 metres, including 5.580 grams per tonne gold over 1.4 metres in hole WP92-04 (Assessment Report 22820).
In 1993, Romulus Resources drilled 4 deep holes in the White Pass area on the Brenda zone. This work identified two phases of gold-rich porphyry copper mineralization at the Brenda zone. These are associated with quartz stockworks and sericitic alteration. One phase carries gold mineralization plus copper in the range of 0.1 to 0.3 per cent. The other carries similar gold grades but associated copper concentrations are only about 0.05 per cent. Minor concentrations of native copper and chalcocite have been observed but no significant supergene zone has been discovered. The best results from drilling in 1993 was in hole 93-1 over 47.8 metres of silicified plagioclase porphyry with a weighted average of 1.1 grams per tonne gold, 0.130 per cent copper, 4.8 grams per tonne silver, 0.0033 per cent lead and 0.0110 per cent zinc (Assessment Report 23385). Other drilling intercepts, in 1993, included 0.62 gram per tonne gold and 0.116 per cent copper over 32.00 metres in hole 93-2, 0.48 gram per tonne gold and 0.144 per cent copper over 108.80 metres in hole 93-3 and 0.44 gram per tonne gold with 0.103 per cent copper over 25.00 metres in hole 93-4 (Assessment Report 23385).
During 1994 through 1997, Canasil Resources Inc. completed programs soil geochemistry, hand trenching and 16 diamond drill holes, totalling 1919 metres, on the Brenda Project. Thirteen of the drill holes tested the White Pass zone yielded intercepts including 0.77 gram per tonne gold and 0.11 per cent copper over 41.5 metres in hole 95-03, 0.605 gram per tonne gold and 0.123 per cent copper over 60.35 metres in hole BR-96-03, 0.832 gram per tonne gold and 0.139 per cent copper over 62.50 metres in hole BR-96-07 and 1.12 grams per tonne gold, 3.2 grams per tonne silver, 0.18 per cent copper and greater than 0.08 per cent zinc and lead, respectively, over 39.93 metres in hole 97-02 (Lane, B.A. (2017-09-12): NI 43-101 Technical Report on the Brenda Gold-Copper Project - White Pass Zone, Brenda Gold-Copper Project).
In 2002, Northgate Minerals Corporation optioned the Brenda property from Canasil Resources Inc. A high-resolution airborne magnetic, radiometric and satellite imaging surveys followed by 1650 metres of diamond drilling in 4 holes. The diamond drill program was successful in intersecting mineralized zones anomalous in copper and gold in all holes, extending the anomalous zone in the White Pass area to a 0.8 by 1.3 kilometre area (Exploration and Mining in 2002; Press Release, Northgate Exploration Ltd., November 22, 2002).
In 2003, a program of rock and soil sampling and five diamond drill holes, totalling 1481.1 metres, were completed on the Brenda property. Drill hole BR-03-07 that intersected 161.6 metres averaging 0.565 gram per tonne gold and 0.079 per cent copper (Exploration and Mining 2004, page 43).
In 2004, a further five diamond drill holes, totalling 1445.7 metres were completed. Drilling yielded intercepts including 0.411 gram per tonne gold and 0.038 per cent copper over 159.6 metres in hole BR-04-10 and 0.399 gram per tonne gold with 0.031 per cent copper over 104.9 metres in hole BR-04-14 (Assessment Report 27556). This work indicated that the White Pass zone occurs over a strike length of at least 520 metres and to a depth of 450 metres with average grade of approximately 0.5 gram per tonne gold (Assessment Report 27556). After review of the 2004 data, Northgate returned the property to the vendor.
In 2007, Canasil Resources conducted a 32.2 line-kilometer 3D Induced Polarization survey, centered over the White Pass zone area. This identified two sub-vertical chargeable zones with northwest and west-northwest orientations. These zones correspond with postulated deeper-seated bulk-tonnage mineralization which was in part drilled later in the year. The 2007 drill program consisted of five bore holes totaling 1708 metres. Drilling yielded intercepts of up to 0.466 gram per tonne gold and 0.088 per cent copper over 169.88 metres from 90.12 to 260.00 metres down-hole in hole BR-07-04 and 0.610 gram per tonne gold with 0.104 per cent copper over 78.30 metres from 110.00 to 188.30 metres down-hole in hole BR-07-05 (Lane, B.A. (2017-09-12): NI 43-101 Technical Report on the Brenda Gold-Copper Project - White Pass Zone, Brenda Gold-Copper Project).
The results of the 2007 exploration drilling program showed that strength of alteration and grade of gold-copper mineralization increased with depth beneath a series of late stage, weakly to non-mineralized quartz monzonite dikes. Drill holes BR-07-04 and BR-07-05 were drilled to depths of 562 metres and 530 metres respectively and indicated the potential for a large deep-seated gold-copper system at Brenda. The White Pass zone has been traced by drilling for 400 metres along strike and averages between 300-400 metres in width. Drill holes BR-07-01 to BR-07-03, drilled to test peripheral targets, but did not encounter any encouraging mineralization. The dike(s) averages 400 meters in thickness on the west and thins and branches to the east. Drill holes BR07-04 and BR07-05 are interpreted to have passed through most of the dike and have intersected mineralization beneath it. The deeper mineralization is strengthening with depth and averages 0.7 to 0.8 gram per tonne gold and 0.13 per cent copper beneath the dike (Assessment Report 30176).
In 2013, a single drill hole, totalling 962.6 metres was completed to test the central White Pass area 500 metres deeper than previous drilling. The top 500 metre of drill hole BR-13-01 was not analyzed because it was a twin of drill hole BR-07-04; the highest grade intersection in drill hole BR-13-01 returned 0.376 gram per tonne gold, 3.4 grams per tonne silver and 0.073 per cent copper over 68 metres from 504 to 572 metres down-hole (Lane, B.A. (2017-09-12): NI 43-101 Technical Report on the Brenda Gold-Copper Project - White Pass Zone, Brenda Gold-Copper Project). This intersection was, however, significantly lower in average grade than the equivalent section of drill hole BR-07-04 between 504 to 562 metres down-hole which averaged 0.707 gram per tonne gold and 0.119 per cent copper (Lane, B.A. (2017-09-12): NI 43-101 Technical Report on the Brenda Gold-Copper Project - White Pass Zone, Brenda Gold-Copper Project). The deeper part of drill hole BR-13-01 was dominated by post-mineral monzonite dikes that were effectively barren. The 2013 drill hole was interpreted to have passed into a non-mineralized portion of the system and missed flanking mineralization.