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File Created: 24-Jul-1985 by BC Geological Survey (BCGS)
Last Edit:  04-Aug-2020 by Karl A. Flower (KAF)

Summary Help Help

NMI 082F14 Ag2,58
Name SILVANA, SILVANA MINE, SILMONAC, MASCOT (L.15272), MINNIE HA HA (L.3171), MINNIEHAHA, BOSS FR. (L.15272), ORIENT FR. (L.5831), DIAMOND FR. (L.5832), OOM PAUL (L.5973), C & K (L.5974), TORNADO (L.5537), BLIMP FR. (L.15275), BEST FR. (L.15273), MINNIEHAHA FR. (L.13006), WESTERN FR. (L.13033) Mining Division Slocan
BCGS Map 082F094
Status Past Producer NTS Map 082F14W
Latitude 049º 58' 21'' UTM 11 (NAD 83)
Longitude 117º 15' 06'' Northing 5535603
Easting 481954
Commodities Silver, Lead, Zinc, Cadmium, Copper Deposit Types I05 : Polymetallic veins Ag-Pb-Zn+/-Au
Tectonic Belt Omineca Terrane Quesnel
Capsule Geology

The Silvana mine is situated on the south side of Carpenter Creek, between White and Tributary creeks at 1430 metres elevation above sea level in the Slocan Mining Division. The Ruth-Hope property (MINFILE 082FNW052) adjoins to the east and the Carnation (MINFILE 082FNW048) and Jenny-Evening (MINFILE 082FNW049) to the west. See also Hinckley (MINFILE 082FNW013).

Regionally, the area lies on the western margin of the Kootenay Arc, in allochthonous rocks of the Quesnel Terrane. In the vicinity of the occurrence, the Quesnel Terrane is dominated by very fine grained clastic sedimentary rocks of the Upper Triassic Slocan Group that include locally weakly metamorphosed argillite, quartzite, limestone and some tuffaceous rocks. These sedimentary rocks are intruded by dikes, sills and stocks of varied composition and origin. Permian and/or Triassic Kaslo Group metamorphosed volcanic rocks occur to the north of the Slocan Group rocks. Middle Jurassic Nelson intrusions are immediately south of the Slocan Group and are inferred to be the source of granitic to pegmatitic sills and dikes found in the area. The Nelson intrusions consist of at least six texturally and compositionally distinct phases ranging from diorite to lamprophyre. The most dominant phase is a medium to coarse-grained potassium feldspar porphyritic granite (Paper 1989-5).

The Silvana mine is hosted by predominantly interbedded black argillite and medium to dark grey quartzite and argillaceous quartzite of the Slocan Group. Argillaceous limestone, limestone and slate are also found in varying proportions in the sequence. The argillite-quartzite sequence commonly has thin graphite, pyrite and pyrrhotite layers. An altered fine-grained siliceous layer has also been observed. Coarse-grained porphyritic biotite-rich diorite occurs as irregular bodies throughout the sedimentary sequence. To the east of the mine area, an altered fine-grained diorite dike has been traced for approximately 610 metres underground. It is subparallel to the Silvana vein structure, which often contains fragments of the dike. The sedimentary rocks have been folded, fractured, faulted and regionally metamorphosed to greenschist facies. The regional northwest-trending asymmetric Slocan syncline is thought to be Middle Jurassic and is the first recognizable deformation in the sequence. Several fault structures are evident and host vein mineralization. Later stage normal and thrust faults and shearing have chopped, deformed and remobilized the veins and mineralization. Horizontal displacement can be several metres to more than 90 metres. Drag features are also present. A postdeformational shear zone is subparallel to the Silvana vein structure for two-thirds of its strike length. Silicification is present in the sedimentary rocks and the vein structures. Graphitization from late-stage shearing is also present throughout these structures.

The Main vein is the most productive in the area, striking east or northeast and crosscutting the synclinal axis. It is an 8-kilometre-long structure that has hosted various producing mines. The strike is mainly east with a variable dip of 13 to 68 degrees south. The Main vein has a separate hangingwall and footwall structure for the majority of its strike length. In places these structures can be separated by up to 45 metres. To the west-southwest of the Silvana mine are the Carnation workings (MINFILE 082FNW048), which are part of the Main vein. The Wakefield (MINFILE 082FNW059) is to the southwest and the Ruth-Hope (MINFILE 082FNW052) is to the east. The MinnieHaHa (Lot 3171) is included with the Silvana mine but it is a separate vein structure that occurs 457 metres (true) in the hangingwall of the Main vein structure. The MinnieHaHa does not connect with the Carnation workings to the west. The Main vein apparently pinches to the south and east against Nelson intrusive rocks.

Two types of breccias are found in the Silvana mine. The first type is the "fragmental" or "vein" breccia. This breccia contains very angular fragments of country rock with a calcite, siderite and minor quartz matrix. The fragments have a varying degree of coarseness. The second type is the "sheared" or "flow" breccia. This breccia is characterized by elongated, mylonitic-style argillaceous quartzite fragments in a graphite matrix with or without calcite and siderite. This type of breccia is derived from late-stage shearing deformation. This postdeformational shearing has deformed "fragmental" breccia and previously nonbrecciated material into flow breccia. These breccias have shredded and boudinaged the ore minerals. The vein structures are less than 15 metres wide and most are approximately 0.6 to 3 metres wide. Within the lode structure, up to four mineralized veins present can pinch and swell along strike and downdip.

The main ore mineralization, dated at 169 Ma -± 3 Ma (Middle Jurassic), consists of argentiferous galena and sphalerite (D.K. Makepeace, personal communication). There are minor amounts of chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, native silver, pyrargyrite and very minor amounts of stephanite, argentopyrite and acanthite. Other metallic minerals present in varying amounts are pyrite, pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite. The gangue minerals are calcite, quartz, orthoclase, siderite, tourmaline, chlorite, clay minerals and laumontite. Other minerals identified in the area include smithsonite, anglesite, chrysocolla, malachite, manganese wad, limonite and hematite.

To the east of the mine area, the Ruth-Hope-Line Star fault system strikes 160 degrees with steep west dips. In places, the fault is more than 60 metres wide. Horizontal displacement is up to 430 metres with an unknown vertical displacement and a probable rotational component. The West Hope fault is 460 metres west of the mine area and strikes 010 degrees with steep dips. This fault is 15 metres wide and has a 110-metre horizontal displacement with an unknown vertical displacement. The Carnation Basin fault strikes north and dips 30 to 35 degrees to the east. It comes to surface in the Carnation workings (1670 to 2133 metres elevation) and cuts off the west end of the Silvana orebody (1371 to 1429 metres elevation). The Wakefield vein structure (thrust fault) in the southwest would also cut the west end of the Silvana orebody further to the west.

The claims in this grouping include (in addition to the Boss Fr. [Mascot; Lot 15272]) the Orient Fr. (Lot 5831), Diamond Fr. (Lot 5832), Oom Paul (Lot 5973), C & K (Lot 5974), Tornado (Lot 5537), Blimp Fr. (Lot 15275) and Best Fr. (Lot 15273).

The oldest workings in the vicinity are apparently on the Mascot claim, which was staked in 1895. There is no record of work done on the adjoining Tornado claim, which was Crown-granted in 1903 to the Selkirk Mining & Milling Company Limited Liability and re-Crown-granted to J.P. Wilson in 1919. On the Mascot claim, two adits, 11 and 18 metres in length, were driven during early activity. A small shipment of ore was reported in 1913. A third and lower adit was driven by Joe Johnson of Silverton from 1925 to 1927 under a lease agreement with owner A. Waddell. The adit was driven southerly for approximately 143 metres to the lode, which was drifted on for 15 metres to the east and 79 metres to the west, with a crosscut 18 metres to the south from the west drift.

Underground work on the Minniehaha claim (Lot 3171) during and possibly prior to 1898 totalled 91 metres of adit. The claim was Crown-granted in 1902 to Patrick Burns. By 1926, the claim had been acquired by the Alex Mann interests of Vancouver, owners of the adjacent Carnation property. Exploration and development work from 1923 to 1924, under the direction of George Clark, included trenching, crosscutting and drifting. The adjacent Minniehaha Fr. (Lot 13006), Western Fr. (Lot 13033) and Western Fr. No. 2 (Lot 13027) were Crown-granted in 1926 to W.G. Clark.

In 1925, the claims were optioned by the Victoria Syndicate Limited of London, in conjunction with the Carnation (MINFILE 082FNW048) and other claims in a large group. Work continued in 1927, when 90 tonnes of ore were shipped from the Minniehaha. The option was dropped in 1928. The claim reverted to A.R. Mann & Associates, who had incorporated Carnation Silver Lead Mines Limited; however, no further work was reported. The workings consisted of four or five adits and considerable surface work over a vertical range of approximately 152 metres. The main adit has an aggregate length of approximately 244 metres and is very irregular. A second adit, 111 metres to the northeast, is 34 metres in length.

Kelowna Exploration Company Limited held this ground and adjacent claims during the period 1939 to 1951. Extensive geological investigations were carried out over the company's holdings, and underground exploration was done on the Carnation property approximately 1.6 kilometres to the west. The company name was changed in 1951 to Kelowna Mines Hedley Limited.

In 1961, Silver Standard Mines Limited acquired an option on 59 claims from Oil Participations Incorporated, who had acquired the claims from Kelowna Mines when it was dissolved in 1958. Drilling by Silver Standard in five surface holes in search of the Carnation-Hope lode suggested a target area just west of the Ruth-Hope property. An agreement was negotiated with Carnegie Mining Corporation Limited to use the Ruth-Hope No. 5 level (1219.2 metres elevation), which terminated near the east boundary of the Orient Fr. claim. The Silmonac Syndicate was formed in October 1962, with Silver Standard Mines Limited, Moneta Porcupine Mines Limited and ViolaMac Mines Limited each having a 28.8 per cent interest and the original owners a 13.6 per cent interest; the latter two companies held a share interest in Carnegie Mining. Rehabilitation of the 1219-metre level was carried out late in 1962 and exploration work began in January 1963. The level was extended westerly for approximately 1305 metres to a lode intersection that was subsequently explored for approximately 244 metres. The initial program, which was completed in November 1963, included 921 metres of crosscuts and drifts, 39 metres of raise and 1130 metres of diamond drilling.

Silmonac Mines Limited was incorporated in November 1963 to succeed the syndicate as operator. Work during the first half of 1964 included 316 metres of drifting, 98 metres of raising and 1528.5 metres of diamond drilling. Work was suspended in June 1964 and did not resume until 1966. A further 152 metres of drifting and crosscutting was completed. Drilling in several up-holes located a small orebody approximately 91 metres above the 1219-metre-level workings. Work was discontinued in the latter part of 1967 due to lack of funds.

In September 1968, Silmonac entered an agreement whereby KamKotia Mines Limited (formerly ViolaMac Mines) and Burkham Mines Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Burden Investors Services Inc. of New York, would provide further exploration funds in equal proportion. Development work resumed in October 1968 in a new adit that was collared at the 1318-metre elevation at the north edge of the Minniehaha claim. From 1968 to 1969, the crosscut adit was driven southerly approximately 853 metres to the lode, which was explored along 305 metres of strike and 61 metres downdip by 1503 metres of drifts and raises and 865 metres of diamond drilling in 23 holes. By April 1970, sufficient reserves had been outlined to justify production. The 136-tonne per day (150-ton per day) mill owned by Carnegie Mining Corporation was rented and production began August 26, 1970. A decline below the 1410-metre level was begun in 1973 and a ventilation raise was driven to the old Mascot workings at the 1524-metre elevation. During the following years, exploration downdip at the east end of the mine located additional mineralized zones.

Silmonac Mines was reorganized and the name was changed in September 1977 to Silvana Mines Inc. Kam-Kotia held a 39 per cent interest and Carnegie Mining a 20 per cent interest. The Carnegie Mill was purchased. The 1219-metre Ruth-Hope level was rehabilitated in 1978 and the No. 2 west lateral was advanced approximately 442 metres. Drilling in 1979 cut ore-grade intersections at elevations from 1292 to approximately 1341 metres. Subsequent work indicated in excess of 136 000 tonnes at 548.5 grams per tonne silver, 5.9 per cent lead and 5.7 per cent zinc (CMH 1977-78, p. 257).

Production through the 1219-metre level began in 1979. A raise was driven to connect the 1219- and 1410-level workings. During 1980, lateral work on the 1219 level totalled 621 metres. In the east decline area, lateral work and raising totalled 1865 metres; there were 5058 metres of underground exploration drilling. Silvana amalgamated with Dickenson Mines Limited under the name of Dickenson Mines Limited.

The Silvana mine closed indefinitely in April 1993. In October 1994, Amcorp Industries Limited signed an agreement to buy the Silvana mine and mill at Sandon from Treminco Resources Limited. A review of the Silvana and Hinckley (MINFILE 082FNW013) mines' ore reserves by Amcorp indicated that approximately 54 400 tonnes of ore grading 290 grams per tonne silver, 3.4 per cent lead and 4.7 per cent zinc remain in the developed areas of the mines with potential to develop additional reserves. Amcorp expected to resume production in early 1995 (Information Circular 1995-1, page 8). Amcorp changed their name in May 1996 to Molycor Gold Corporation, part of the Verdstone Group of companies.

Production from the Silvana between 1913 and 1993 yielded approximately 242 tonnes of silver, 28 691 tonnes of lead, 26 299 tonnes of zinc and 72 tonnes of cadmium from 510 964 tonnes mined.

At the end of 1997, underground access to the Hinckley and Silvana lodes was re-established. Mining started on the Hinckley lode and the Silvana mill was recommissioned.

In 1998, Treminco signed a letter of intent with Regeena Resources Inc. to purchase the Silvana and Hinckley operations. Treminco changed their name to Elkhorn Gold Mining Corporation in February 1999.

Klondike Gold Corporation acquired the Silvana and Hinckley (MINFILE 082FNW013) mines in May 1999 and commenced selective mining on the 4625 level of the Silvana mine in the fall. Test milling started in September 2000 and was completed by December 2000. A total of 3577 tonnes of ore was mined yielding 138 tonnes of lead, 114 tonnes of zinc and 1443 kilograms of silver. The project cost $883 545 CAD and returned total revenues of $614 927 CAD. Excess costs were attributed to slower than projected production due to winter conditions. Revenues were lower than projected due to lower than expected grade mined, lower silver prices and recovery problems during mill start-up. The project is in care and maintenance status as of February 2003.

In May 1999, Klondike Gold Corp. acquired the Silvana and Hinckley mines from Treminco Resources Ltd. Selective mining on the 4625 level commenced in the fall of 1999 and a total of 3577 tonnes of ore was processed in the mill yielding 138 tonnes of lead, 114 tonnes of zinc and 1443 kilograms of silver (Höy, T. (2016-06-28): Technical Report – The Slocan Silver Camp).

In 2012, Klondike Silver Corporation conducted exploration and bulk testing at the Silvana mine. The mill was operating in 10-hour shifts, seven days a week, processing approximately 40 tonnes of material per day. Exploration continued at the 4625 and 4755 levels and confirmed the westward continuation of the main lode structure at the 4625 level. By January 2013, underground mining operations had increased and the mill was continuing to produce 40 tonnes per day from the 4755 level. Operations were briefly interrupted to reroute power, water and air systems at the 4625 and 4755 levels, but production resumed in March 2013. Mining resumed in the Silver vein, which started as a 0.9-metre seam but had widened to a 1.8-metre seam with consistent mineralization.

Exploration, both surface and underground, as well as some underground development, continued by Klondike Silver Corp. from their acquisition of the claims until 2014.

EMPR AR 1898-1074; 1902-H300; 1903-H244; 1904-G296,G297; 1919-N154; 1923-A227; *1924-B196; 1925-A241; 1926-A250,A449; 1927-C276; 1961-77; 1966-222; 1967-252,253; 1968-253,254; 1970-A55; 1971-A55; 1972-A55; 1973-A55; 1974-A121; 1975-A95; 1976-A105; 1977-A116; 1978-128; 1979-130
EMPR ASS RPT 15774, *16767
EMPR BULL *29, pp. 90, 91
EMPR ENG INSP (Geological plan of adit); Annual Report 1989, 1990
EMPR EXPL 1975-E38; 1985-A38; 1987-A65; 1988-A5; 1990-65; 1993-5;
EMPR FIELDWORK 1987, pp. 31–48, 515–521; *1989, pp. 251–255; 1990, pp. 171–178
EMPR GEM 1969-328; 1970-452, 453; 1971-408; 1972-57, 58; 1973-78; 1974-24, 77
EMPR INF CIRC 1994-1, p. 8; 1994-19, pp. 8, 11; 1995-1, pp. 8, 11
EMPR IR 1984-2, p. 103; 1984-3, pp. 105, 109; 1984-4, p. 122; 1984-5, pp. 113, 116; 1986-1, pp. 109, 112
EMPR LMP Fiche No. 61510
EMPR MAP 65 (1989)
EMPR MIN STATS 1985, pp. 47, 50; 1987, pp. 36, 38, 65, 66; 1990, pp. 27, 31, 34, 68, 69, 70
EMPR MINING 1975-1980, Volume I, pp. 36, 37; 1981–1985, pp. 27, 49; 1986–1987, pp. 64–65; 1988, p. 65
EMPR OF 1992-1; 1994-1; 1998-10
EMPR P 1989-5;
EMPR PF (*Pers. Comm. from D.K. Makepeace, Silvana chief geologist [1989]; Kam-Kotia-Burkham Joint venture, Plan of composite levels, 1972; Silvana Mines Inc. Accounting Report, 1978, 1979; Dickenson Mines Limited, Accounting Report, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983; Interim Report, Treminco Resources Inc., Jan. 31, Oct. 31, 1990, Jan. 31, 1991; Annual Report, Treminco Resources, 1989; Annual Report, Dickenson Group of Companies, 1982; Composite level plan, Dickenson Mines Ltd, 1980; see 082FNW, General - Slocan structural map, Mayo, E.B. 1951; *Maps to accompany [originals] Bulletin 29, M.S. Hedley; Evolution of the Slocan syncline in south-eastern British Columbia, Ross, J.V., Kellerhals, P., 1968; see Willa, 082FNW071 - Treminco Resources Limited; see Silverite, 082FNW011 - Billingsley, P. [1956]: Picture model of Silver Ridge and Howson Creek area, 1956; see Reco, 082FNW035 - Jefferson, L.M. [1971]: The Potential of Reco Silver Mines Ltd., p. 49; McMillan, W.J. [1990]: Report on visit to New Denver area and Silvana Mine) EMR MIN BULL MR 166
EMR MP CORPFILE (Kelowna Mines Hedley Limited.; Silver Standard Mines Limited; Silvana Mines Inc.; Kam-Kotia Mines Limited; Dickenson Group of Companies; Dickenson Mines Limited)
GSC MAP 273A; 1090A; 1091A; 3-1956; 1176A
GSC MEM *173; 184, pp. 28, 79, 84, 85; 308, p. 127
GSC OF 2167, pp. 17–18
GSC P 49-22; 79-1B, pp. 173–178
GSC SUM RPT 1910, pp. 123 128; 1916, pp. 56, 57; 1919, Part B, pp. 39B–48B; 1925, pp. 213A–221A
CMH 1977-78, p. 257; 1992-93, p. 353; 1998-99, p. 447
CMJ Oct. 1981
GCNL #54, 1976; #29,#65, 1978; #97, #138, #244, 1979; #169, 1989; #187, (Sept. 29), #215 (Nov. 7), 1997; #10 (Jan. 15), 1998; #146 (Jul. 31), 2000
N MINER Jul. 31, 1975; Mar. 4, 1976; Feb. 16, 1978; Feb. 22, 1979; May 28, 1981; Apr. 12, 1984; Mar. 7, May 2, 16, Sept. 30, 1985; Apr. 14, 1986; Sep. 11, 1989
PR REL Klondike Gold Corp., Feb. 6, 2003; Klondike Silver Corp., Jul. 5, 2012; Jan. 29, Mar. 20, 2013
V STOCKWATCH Sept. 1, 1989
Logan, J.M. (1986): Geochemical Constraints on the Genesis of Ag-Pb-Zn Deposits, Sandon, British Columbia, Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 178 pages
*Höy, T. (2016-06-28): Technical Report – The Slocan Silver Camp
EMPR PFD 2107, 2108, 2109, 2110, 2111, 2112, 2113, 2114, 2115, 2116, 2117, 2118, 2119, 2120, 2121, 2122, 2123, 2124, 2125, 2126, 2127, 2128, 2129, 2130, 2131, 2132, 2133, 2134, 2135, 2136, 2137, 2138, 2139, 2217, 901553, 901561, 901695, 903834, 904397, 810267, 810268, 810269, 801711, 751737, 751738, 907114, 907701, 909111, 909309, 887708, 887709, 887710, 887712, 887713, 887714, 887715, 887716, 823761, 822815, 801456, 801457, 801458, 801459, 801460, 801461, 801462, 801463, 801464, 801465, 801466, 801467, 801468, 801469, 801470, 801471, 801296, 801341, 801400, 801399, 801398, 801397, 801396, 801395, 801393, 801390, 801383, 801382, 801381, 801380, 801379, 801378, 801085, 801109, 801110, 801111, 801120, 801138, 801142, 801159, 801160, 801161, 801162, 801163, 801164, 801165, 801166, 801167, 801168, 801169, 801182, 801183, 801184, 801185, 801186, 801187, 801188, 801189, 801193, 801194, 801195, 801196, 801197, 801198, 801199, 801200, 801201, 801202, 801203, 801204, 801205, 801206, 801207, 801208, 801209, 801210, 801211, 801212, 801213, 801214, 801215, 801216, 801217, 801924, 801642, 801670, 801672, 801680, 801681, 801683, 801684, 801917, 801918, 801919, 801920, 801921, 801922, 801923, 801925, 801597, 801644, 801645, 801646, 801647, 801666, 801669, 801671, 801678, 801685, 801686, 801687, 801688, 801689, 801690, 801691, 801692, 801693, 801694, 801695, 801696, 801697, 801698, 801699, 801700, 801701, 801702, 801703, 801704, 801710, 801712, 801713, 801714, 801716, 801717, 801727, 801731, 801786, 801787, 801788, 801789, 801790, 801791, 801800, 801801, 801802, 801803, 801806, 801890, 801891, 801892, 801907, 801908, 801909, 801910, 801911, 801912, 801913, 801914, 801915, 801916, 674464, 674487, 830615, 676673, 896433, 896453, 680091, 680092