The adjoining Golden Crown (Lot 600) and Winnipeg (Lot 599) (MINFILE 082ESE033) claims are located 7.5 kilometres east of Greenwood and 3.2 kilometres southeast of Phoenix at an elevation of 1326 metres. Access to the property is 1.2 kilometres east from Hartford Junction by dirt road on an old railway grade.
The Greenwood-Grand Forks area contains Upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic volcanic and sedimentary rocks, mainly in the greenschist facies of regional metamorphism, intruded by Mesozoic plutons and unconformably overlain by Tertiary volcaniclastic and flow rocks. The pre-Tertiary stratiform rocks are contained in a series of five, north-dipping thrust slices with bounding faults that are marked in many places by layers and lenses of deformed serpentinite. These thrust slices lie above high-grade metamorphic complexes.
The Upper Paleozoic rocks in the Greenwood area are Knob Hill Group chert, greenstone and related diorite and serpentinite and Attwood Group dark-grey argillite, limestone and minor volcanic rocks. They are unconformably overlain by Brooklyn Formation clastic sedimentary rocks, limestone and largely submarine pyroclastic breccias and related dioritic intrusions. These rocks probably formed in an environment of growth faulting and explosive volcanism (Open File 1990-25).
The distribution of the Tertiary rocks is controlled by a complicated array of extension faults. Three sets are recognized. The oldest are gently east-dipping, at or near the base of the Tertiary. Later, dominantly west-dipping, listric normal faults have caused rotation so that the Tertiary strata dip to the east at moderate angles; the apparent offset on each of the five of these faults is measured in kilometres. The third and latest faults are north to northeast-trending, steeply dipping, strongly hinged and influenced by the earlier faults.
The Golden Crown property is underlain by Knob Hill Group greenstones intruded by Permian or possibly older ‘Old Diorite’. The greenstone ranges from andesite to basalt in composition, and occurs as flows and tuffs. The rocks are locally metamorphosed to greenschist facies with only a weak fabric being developed. All the rocks have been weakly propylitically altered, with chlorite being the predominant alteration mineral.
Regionally, the Old Diorite occurs principally in a narrow belt at the base of the Knob Hill Group. It consists of a coarse-grained hornblende diorite with many crisscrossing light-coloured veins of felsic rock. The coarse-grained phases grade into finer grained diorites and these in turn grade into greenstones of the Knob Hill Group. Pervasive felsic veinlets usually continue through the transition. Dikes and irregular bodies of Old Diorite also intrude the Knob Hill greenstone. The Old Diorite is also closely associated with serpentinite bodies.
Mineralization in the Golden Crown mine area consists of a northwest-trending swarm or network of steeply north and south-dipping quartz-sulphide or massive sulphide veins, which range in width from centimetres to several metres. The veins occur along parallel to subparallel, northwest-trending structures hosted in greenstone and diorite. At least eight known mineralized structures have been identified and are referred to as the King, George, MacArthur, Lynn and/or Ivory, Tiara, Samaritan, Calumet and Centre veins.
Three types of veins have been identified: 1) quartz veins with disseminated pyrrhotite, pyrite and chalcopyrite; 2) massive sulphide veins of pyrrhotite with lesser amounts of pyrite, chalcopyrite and quartz and 3) quartz-calcite veins containing massive pyrite and chalcopyrite. The first type of vein occurs throughout the property but contains no significant gold values. The second type generally occurs east of the Golden Crown shaft; this type carries the best gold, silver and copper values. The third type of vein occurs west of the Golden Crown shaft. These veins have yielded high copper values but generally low gold values (Assessment Report 20431). The Golden Crown is classified as a mesothermal-type vein deposit.
Geophysical interpretation suggests two parallel faults trending north, bounding the area between the Winnipeg shaft and the Golden Crown shaft. The best continuous gold values occur between these two interpreted faults. West of the faults the veins are of the quartz-calcite variety (Assessment Report 20431).
Intermittent production on the Golden Crown from 1900 to 1941 was 2488 tonnes of ore yielding 38.5 kilograms of gold, 70 kilograms of silver and 38 tonnes of copper. An additional 53 316 tonnes of ore, with significant gold and silver, was mined from the Winnipeg.
The Winnipeg and Golden Crown claims were staked in 1891. By 1897, both properties had undergone vigorous development. The Golden Crown was Crown granted to W.J. Porter in 1886. A number of small copper- and gold-bearing quartz veins were found. At this time a crosscut adit was collared to intercept 5 of the most interesting veins. No. 2 vein, was exposed on top of the hill, was a prime target and cut for 85 metres at a depth of 24 metres. A shaft was then sunk 18 metres on No. 2 vein, which was 3 to 50 centimetres wide and consisted of decomposed quartz and the sulphides from which high gold assays had been obtained. The enclosing country rock was also somewhat mineralized and yielded gold values. No. 3 is a small vein of quartz and sulphides exposed in a cut 10 metres south of No. 2 vein. Nearby No. 5 vein, the site of the second shaft, is approximately 1 metre wide and composed of quartz, pyrrhotite and copper and iron pyrite carrying high gold values.
By 1899, the Golden Crown shaft had been sunk to a depth of approximately 90 metres on the main vein, which ranged to 2.4 metres wide. Crosscut levels to the south, from the shaft to the vein, had been made at the 30 and 46 metre levels. At the 90 metre level, drifts were being run both north and south, but had not yet reached ore, having been driven only approximately 6 metres each way from the shaft. By 1903, development was completed on three veins. The Golden Crown shaft was down to 98 metres connecting several levels, the longest of which was approximately 275 metres. At least three other shafts and a number of trenches are reported on the adjoining Hard Cash (L.1062) and J. and R. Fraction (L.1059) Crown grants. In 1943, Granby Consolidated Mining, Smelting & Power Co. Ltd. examined the property.
In 1967, Sabina Mines Ltd. and Scurry-Rainbow Oil Limited initiated geophysical work followed by 1652 metres of diamond drilling in 16 holes. Drillhole S-3 intercepted 13.0 grams per tonne gold, 43.1 grams per tonne silver and 1.01 per cent copper over 1.5 metres (Property File - CON-AM Resources Ltd. [1977-10-31]: Report on the Golden Crown Group).
In 1977 and 1978, a small amount of drilling (two holes of 317 and 769 metres, respectively) was done by Golden Crown Syndicate and Con Am Resources Ltd. Two drillholes (G.C. Nos. 9 and 11), located southeast of the Golden Crown shaft and northeast of the MacArthur shaft, yielded incepts of 8.2 grams per tonne gold with 0.33 per cent copper over a true width of 2.1 metres and 6.8 grams per tonne gold with 0.40 per cent copper over a true width of 1.35 metres, respectively (Property File - Con-Am Resources Ltd. [1978-12-12]: News Clipping - Drilling and exploration - Golden Crown property).
In 1979, Consolidated Boundary Exploration Limited drilled an additional two holes, totalling 329 metres, on the property. This work was centred on the Golden Crown vein from the 100 foot level workings, southeast of the Golden Crown shaft and north of the MacArthur shaft. Two drillholes (79-2 and 79-3), located southeast and east of the Golden Crown shaft, yielded 25.0 and 46.2 grams per tonne gold, 10.3 and 13.7 grams per tonne silver with 1.03 and 0.30 per cent copper over 0.96 and 0.45 metre, respectively (Property File - Consolidated Boundary Exploration Ltd. [1979-11-29]: News Clipping - Two Further Holes Yield Good Assay Results).
Drilling 1983 and 1986, under option to Grand Forks Mines Ltd., delineated the known mineralized zone at the Golden Crown property and also resulted in the discovery of seven other mineralized zones, including the Centre vein. The Centre vein is located halfway between the Golden Crown and Winnipeg workings and is a lenticular massive sulphide vein consisting of pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite and minor pyrite.
In 1983, drilling intercepted two mineralized zones in hole 83-18 yielding 11.8 grams per tonne gold, 81.4 grams per tonne silver with 3.45 per cent copper over 2.22 metres at a depth of 62.4 metres and 23.4 grams per tonne gold, 56.8 grams per tonne silver with 3.63 per cent copper over 1.26 metres at a depth of 109.2 metres (Property File - Consolidated Boundary Exploration [1984-03-01]: News - 1983 drilling - Golden Crown - Phoenix property).
In 1984, drilling extended the main zone downdip for an additional 42 metres to a total depth of 132 metres with intercepts yielded up to 17.3 grams per tonne gold and 0.63 per cent copper over 3.0 metres in hole 84-26, whereas other holes intercepted a ‘new’ parallel zone to the south, yielding up to 30.2 grams per tonne gold, 17.1 grams per tonne silver and 0.61 per cent copper over 0.6 metre in hole 84-24 and 10.6 grams per tonne gold, 39.0 grams per tonne silver and 2.38 per cent copper over 1.44 metres in hole 84-22 (Property File - Consolidated Boundary Exploration Ltd. [1985-03-01]: Further Drilling Planned For 1985).
In 1985, drilling on the northwest zone yielded up to 10.7 grams per tonne gold over 1.2 metres of massive sulphides (Property File - Consolidated Boundary Exploration Ltd. [1986-06-11]: Deal On Gold Prospect In B.C. Is Imminent).
In 1986, drilling on a parallel zone, located 300 metres south of the main zone, yielded up to 43.1 grams per tonne gold over 1.3 metres in hole 86-2 and 7.8 grams per tonne gold over 1.4 metres in hole 86-3 (Property File - Consolidated Boundary Exploration Ltd. [1986-11-12]: News - Exploration - Golden Crown property).
During 1987 through 1989, additional drilling and underground development was done by the company, now known as Attwood Gold Corporation. A new exploration adit was driven 603 metres to the Centre vein. The trackless adit was completed at 782 metres from the portal. Crosscuts were driven in early 1988 to the Golden Crown shaft and to the expected location of the Winnipeg shaft. A raise was also completed to the Golden Crown 30-metre level.
In 1987, underground sampling yielded up to 25.3 grams per tonne gold across 0.9 metre along a mineralized structure followed for 15 metres near the portal; 3.4 to 23.9 grams per tonne gold across 0.69 metre of massive sulphide vein from 45 to 92.1 metres of a drift and 5.8 grams per tonne gold across 0.96 metre of serpentine contact exposed in a drift (Property File - Consolidated Boundary Explorations Ltd. [1987-11-16]: News - Exploration - Golden Crown property). A resource estimate of 59 840 tonnes grading 15.0 grams per tonne gold, 17.5 grams per tonne silver and 0.66 per cent copper along nine mineralized zones was reported at this time (Property File - Grand Forks Mines Ltd. [1987-12-11]: Statement of Material Facts #151/87).
In 1988, diamond drilling on the King and George veins established the continuity of the veins to 60 metres below the main shaft with intercepts yielding up to 141.6 grams per tonne gold, 27.0 grams per tonne silver and 0.71 per cent copper over 1.62 metres in hole 88-1 (Property File - GCNL [1988-07-25]: No. 142 (1988) - Lara, Indian, Katanga, Golden Crown, Brett, SNIP); 44.8 grams per tonne gold, 37.6 grams per tonne silver and 2.85 per cent copper over 0.48 metre in hole 88-16; 35.2 grams per tonne gold, 45.1 grams per tonne silver and 0.29 per cent copper over 2.37 metres in hole 88-18; 42.8 grams per tonne gold and 0.55 per cent copper over 0.6 metre in hole 88-23; 213.1 grams per tonne gold and 0.45 per cent copper over 9 centimetres in hole 88-26 and 492.5 grams per tonne gold over 4.5 metres in hole 89-5A (Property File - GCNL [1989-02-16]: No. 33 (1989) - Golden Crown, Snowbird). Two 22.7-kilogram bulk samples from a crosscut yielded an average of 23.9 grams per tonne gold (Property File - GCNL [1988-04-27]: No. 81 (1988) - Golden Crown, Reliance, Giant Copper, Dragon Creek).
In 1989, work included 48 underground diamond drill holes, 12 surface drillholes, and 365 metres of additional drifting and crosscutting. Drilling was successful in discovering the main oreshoot on the King Vein, below the drift level and raking to the southwest. In 1989, Grand Forks Mines changed its name to Attwood Gold Corp. At this time, drillhole GCU 89-5A intercepted a zone of massive sulphides 30 metres below the main drift level, yielding 492.5 grams per tonne gold over 4.5 metres, and an estimated drill indicated resource was made of 56 850 tonnes averaging 15.26 grams per tonne gold, 17.83 grams per tonne silver and 0.70 per cent copper (Property File - Attwood Gold Corporation [1989-06-29]: Filing Statement #69/89).
In 1990, Attwood undertook a program of surface drilling (34 holes), geochemistry, geophysics, and surveyed all identifiable drillhole collars. An independent reserve estimate was completed, and reserves were estimated at 33 740 tonnes at an average grade of 18.38 grams per tonne gold (cut), 34.29 grams per tonne gold (uncut) and 1 per cent copper (as reported in Assessment Report 25895). The discrepancy between this and previous estimates was deemed to be largely the result of inaccurate drillhole locations.
In 1996, 11 Crown grants were inadvertently allowed to lapse and reverted back to the Crown, including the Calumet, on which the first 500 metres of the main drift is located. Under regulations in effect at the time, the reverted Crown grants were placed up for auction in June 1997 and were acquired by Donald Rippon for a sum of $28,652. The claims were subsequently transferred to Century Gold. Attwood Gold still held title to the Winnipeg and Golden Crown Crown grants, the two claims that complete the Golden Crown property. Century negotiated a deal with Attwood Gold to acquire a 100% interest in these two remaining claims. In 1998, Century completed a preliminary review of data, followed by a program of grid work, geological mapping and rock sampling. A trenching program was initiated late in the season. A total of approximately 700 metres of trenching in 22 trenches on 11 different targets was completed. Highlights of the program included the discovery of the gold-bearing Tiara massive sulphide vein, with two potentially important zones untested by drilling. Also at this time, the main drift was rehabilitated to allow access for geological mapping.
In 2003, Gold City Industries Ltd. completed 2138.7 metres of drilling in 47 HQ diamond drill holes. Twenty-one of these holes comprised definition drilling of the King vein, with step out holes on approximately 15-metre centres to trace mineralization into previously untested areas. A number of other veins on the Golden Crown property were also tested during the drill program. Four holes were completed on the Samaritan vein, which is subparallel and 60 metres to the south of the King vein. As well, 14 shallow holes were completed on the Tiara vein, which occurs at a diorite-serpentinite contact 250 metres southeast of the King vein. The trench exposes the vein along a 70-metre strike length. Several holes also tested the Golden Crown, Portal and Calumet veins. Drill intercepts on the veins yielded up to 362.82 grams per tonne gold with 0.39 per cent copper over 1.86 metres in hole 03CDH-01and 72.14 grams per tonne gold with 1.31 per cent copper over 1.25 metre in hole 03CDH-03, both on the King vein; 21.73 grams per tonne gold with 0.41 per cent copper over 0.94 metres on the Samaritan vein; 81.20 grams per tonne gold with 0.24 per cent copper over 1 metre from the Tiara vein; 1.85 grams per tonne gold over 1.95 metres from the Golden Crown (Portal) vein and 1.41 grams per tonne gold over 2.74 metres from the Calumet vein (Property File - D. Terry [2003-12-05]: Weekly Reports - Kootenay Region - Golden Crown).
Gold City Industries Ltd’s Greenwood Gold project, which incorporated the Lexington (MINFILE 082ESE041, 042) and Golden Crown (MINFILE 082ESE032, 033) properties, was extremely active again in 2004. Trenching and diamond drilling were carried out at both sites. The company also received permission to construct a 200-tonne per day mill on the Zip property, in the same area. Following commissioning of the mill, a 10 000-tonne bulk sample will be collected from the Lexington property via the Grenoble zone adit. Mineralization on both properties is vein-hosted. A positive production decision is anticipated in 2005 following processing of the Lexington bulk sample. Work on the Golden Crown included trenching and diamond drilling.
At a cut-off of 6.0 grams per tonne gold equivalent, the Golden Crown NI compliant indicated resource in 2004 was 30 700 tonnes grading 17.9 grams per tonne gold and 0.8 per cent copper, or a gold equivalent of 19.7 grams per tonne. At the same cut-off, the inferred resource in 2004 was 74 200 tonnes grading 12.7 grams per tonne gold and 0.6 per cent copper, or a gold equivalent of 14.0 grams per tonne (News Release, Gold City Industries Ltd., May 17, 2004). This is believed to include the Winnipeg (L.599) occurrence (MINFILE 082ESE033).
In 2006, an updated NI43-101 compliant indicated resource of 105 000 tonnes grading 13.78 grams per tonne gold and 0.55 per cent copper, or a gold equivalent of 15.33 grams per tonne was reported at a cut-off of 6.0 grams per tonne gold equivalent (Property File - Merit Mining Corp. [2006-10-03]: Press Release - Merit Updates Greenwood Gold Project Resource Base). This is believed to include the Winnipeg (L.599) occurrence (MINFILE 082ESE033).
In 2016, an updated mineral resource was reported at 163,000 tonnes indicated grading 11.09 grams per tonne gold and 0.56 per cent copper and 42,000 tonnes inferred grading 9.04 grams per tonne gold and 0.43 per cent copper, using a 3.50 gram per tonne gold equivalent cut-off grade (Cowley, P. (2017-06-02): Updated Preliminary Economic Assessment on the Greenwood Precious Metals Project).