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File Created: 24-Jul-1985 by BC Geological Survey (BCGS)
Last Edit:  20-Jul-2023 by Larry Jones (LDJ)

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NMI 092L12 Cu1
Name CALEDONIA (L.1294), CASCADE (L.1295), BLUE BELL (L.1296), SCOTIA, PICK 10 Mining Division Nanaimo
BCGS Map 092L062
Status Developed Prospect NTS Map 092L12E
Latitude 050º 38' 50'' UTM 09 (NAD 83)
Longitude 127º 36' 22'' Northing 5611530
Easting 598540
Commodities Zinc, Silver, Copper, Lead, Gold Deposit Types K02 : Pb-Zn skarn
J01 : Polymetallic manto Ag-Pb-Zn
K01 : Cu skarn
Tectonic Belt Insular Terrane Wrangell
Capsule Geology

The Caledonia (L.1294) occurrence is located on the northwest side of Caledonia Creek, a tributary of Bluebell Creek, approximately 2.7 kilometres northwest of Bluebell Creek’s mouth on Quatse Lake.

Regionally, the area is underlain by northwest-trending belts of basaltic volcanics and carbonate sedimentary rocks of the Upper Triassic Karmutsen and Quatsino formations (Vancouver Group) and mafic volcanics and sediments of the Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic Bonanza Group (Holberg volcanic unit, Nahwitti River wacke and Parson Bay Formation). These volcanic and sedimentary rocks have been intruded by granodioritic rocks of the Early to Middle Jurassic Island Plutonic Suite.

Locally, epidote-chlorite-garnet-actinolite skarn hosts sphalerite, chalcopyrite, magnetite, specularite, bornite, galena, tennantite and pyrite mineralization at a contact between Quatsino limestone, Karmutsen volcanics and granodiorite of the Island Plutonic Suite. Some of the mineralization extends into the granodiorite associated with sericitized fractures. Amethyst-bearing quartz is reported in silicified limestone zones. The limestone strikes 315 degrees and dips 25 degrees to the south. The mineralized zone varies from 3 to 5 metres wide over a strike length of approximately 600 metres. Other mineralized zones are reported along a northwest trend for at least 1.5 kilometres.

Approximately 105 metres north of the Caledonia adits, near the top of the hill on the Cascade (L.1294) Crown grant, zones of massive magnetite with lesser chalcopyrite, up to 3 metres wide, have been exposed by small hand trenches over strike length of 300 metres. The zone strikes east-west and dips 80 degrees south. Another mineralized zone, located east of the previous zone, contains garnet, epidote, magnetite and minor chalcopyrite in a replacement zone in limestone at a granodiorite contact. A narrow, wedge-shaped body of mineralization extends approximately 12 metres into the granodiorite.

Further north-northwest, bands of chalcopyrite and magnetite in Karmutsen volcanics are reported on the Blue Bell (L.1296) Crown grant. Northwest of the Blue Bell (L.1296) Crown grant, on the former Pick 10 claim, another zone of chalcopyrite-magnetite mineralization is reported to have been identified over an area of 360 by 120 metres.

In 1926, a chip sample collected across 1.8 metres assayed trace gold, 418.2 grams per tonne silver, 2.0 per cent copper, 0.8 per cent lead and 10.0 per cent zinc (Minister of Mines Annual Report 1926).

In 1929, 0.9 tonne of ore was shipped from the property, grading 514.2 grams per tonne silver and 7.3 per cent copper (Malcolm, 1969).

In 1972, underground development is reported to have outlined possible reserves of 68,000 tonnes grading 704.2 grams per tonne silver, 6.1 per cent copper, 7.45 per cent zinc, 0.6 per cent lead and 0.34 gram per tonne gold in a 3- to 5-metre wide zone over a strike length of 100 metres (George Cross News Letter #221, 1981; Statement of Material Facts July 5, 1972 - North Island Mines Ltd., D.C. Malcolm, April 24, 1972). Also, at this time, sampling to the northwest, on the Pick 10 claim, is reported to have yielded from 0.39 to 2.0 per cent copper (Assessment Report 29895).

In 1989, a sample (891111-1) from the Caledonia dump assayed 25.42 per cent copper, 4.27 per cent zinc, 2644.7 grams per tonne silver and 0.39 gram per tonne gold (Assessment Report 19417).

In 1994, drillhole no. 8 is reported to have yielded values up to 3.15 per cent copper and 164.8 grams per tonne silver over 1.5 metres (Assessment Report 25408).

In 1995, chip samples from the Caledonia workings yielded up to 0.9 per cent copper, 1.18 per cent zinc and 127.6 grams per tonne silver, whereas a sample (97703) taken from the northeast zone assayed 6.3 per cent copper, 6.2 per cent zinc and 25.1 grams per tonne silver (Assessment Report 25408).

In 2007, sampling of the upper adit and raise yielded values up to 581.7 grams per tonne silver, 4.42 per cent copper, 0.13 per cent lead and 8.97 per cent zinc (Assessment Report 25408).

In 2010, percussion drilling near the upper adit yielded up to 200 grams per tonne silver, 2.35 per cent copper, 0.670 per cent lead and 2.28 per cent zinc over 3.0 metres in hole CAL-17, whereas a sample from the adit itself assayed 400.0 grams per tonne silver, 7.35 per cent copper, 0.421 per cent lead and 0.749 per cent zinc over 1.5 metres (Assessment Report 32226).

In the early 1920s, the Caledonia (L.1294), Cascade (L.1295) and Blue Bell (L.1296) Crown grants were staked, programs of prospecting, stripping and trenching were undertaken, and a 15-metre-long adit was developed. In 1929, Cominco acquired the property and completed 135 metres of underground drifting and a raise. A second adit is reported a short distance uphill from the first.

In 1968, North Island Mines Ltd. completed a program of geochemical sampling, trenching and 15 diamond drill holes, totalling 690.0 metres. During 1971 through 1973, further programs of soil sampling, trenching and percussion drilling were completed on the area.

In 1981, Energex Minerals Ltd. completed an airborne electromagnetic survey on the area as the Pick claims. In 1988, a 390.0 line-kilometre airborne geophysical survey was completed on the area. In 1989, Hisway Resources Corp. prospected the area and completed a single drillhole, totalling 152.9 metres, on the area. During 1993 through 1997, Winfield Resources Ltd. completed programs of soil and rock sampling, geological mapping, ground geophysical surveys and two diamond drill holes on the area.

In 2007, Quatse Silver Resources Inc. completed a program of geological mapping, trenching and geochemical sampling on the area. In 2010, 18 percussion drill holes, totalling 228.0 metres, were completed. Also at this time, a 50-tonne bulk sample was blasted for future shipment to a flotation mill. In 2012 and 2013, programs of minor soil sampling, a ground magnetic survey and an air photo lineament study were completed. In 2016, the area was prospected by Tech-X Resources Ltd.

EMPR AR 1920-202; 1923-253; *1926-322; 1927-352,484; 1928-379; 1929-380,504; 1930-297; 1968-84,88
EMPR GEM 1970-254,265
EMPR MAP 65 (1989)
EMPR OF 1992-1; 1992-6; 1998-10
EMPR PF (Malcolm, D.C. (1969): Report on North Island Mines Ltd., (1970): Report on North Island Mines Ltd., North Island Mines Progress Report, North Island Mines Summary Report)
EMPR PF Cyprus Anvil (Pavelic, N., Chisholm, E.O. (1967-02-22): Property Submission: Port Hardy and Tesla Mountain)
EMR MIN BULL MR 223 B.C. 178
EMR MP CORPFILE (North Island Mines Ltd.; McCullough Utah Resources Ltd.; Caledonia Resources)
GSC MAP *4-1974; 255A; 1552A
GSC OF 9; 170; 463; 722
GSC P 69-1A; 72-44; *74-8; 79-30
GSC SUM RPT *1929 Part A, p. 122
CJES 18, p. 1; 20, p. 1
GCNL #95,#99, 1968; Aug.16, 1972; *#221, 1981; #120, 1982
N MINER Mar.4, 1982
Carson, D.J.T. (1968): Metallogenic Study of Vancouver Island with emphasis on the Relationship of Plutonic Rocks to Mineral Deposits, Ph.D. Thesis, Carleton University, Ottawa
Sangster, D.F. (1964): The Contact Metasomatic Magnetite Deposits of Southwestern British Columbia, Ph.D. Thesis, University of British Columbia