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File Created: 24-Jul-1985 by BC Geological Survey (BCGS)
Last Edit:  07-May-2014 by Nicole Barlow (NB)

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NMI 092F16 Ge1
Name LANG BAY, LANG CREEK Mining Division Vancouver
BCGS Map 092F088
Status Developed Prospect NTS Map 092F16W
Latitude 049º 48' 48'' UTM 10 (NAD 83)
Longitude 124º 24' 29'' Northing 5518828
Easting 398700
Commodities Kaolinite, Germanium, Gallium, Indium, Clay Deposit Types B05 : Residual kaolin
Tectonic Belt Coast Crystalline Terrane Plutonic Rocks
Capsule Geology

The Lang Bay occurrence is located west of Lang Creek, approximately 5.5 kilometres north west of the community of Lang Bay.

A small sedimentary basin, measuring 25 square kilometres, overlies a granodiorite-diorite pluton at the western edge of the Jurassic to Tertiary Coast Plutonic Complex. The Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) sedimentary outlier consists of irregular layers of kaolin claystones, mudstones, siltstones, sandstones and conglomerates with minor detrital coal and coal lenses. The coal occurs in seams up to 5 metres thick and is germanium-bearing. Germanium values are primarily contained in the vitrinite fraction of the lignite lenses, which makes up to 2 per cent of the seam. Within the vitrinite, germanium is associated with iron and sulphur. Typical analyses are 30 to 70 grams per tonne germanium, 15 to 20 grams per tonne gallium and less than 10 grams per tonne indium (National Mineral Inventory card 092F16 Ge1). Indicated reserves of 2,000,070 tonnes contain an estimated average of 70 grams per tonne germanium in a area that measures 1000 by 356 by 2.44 metres (Property File - Wright Engineers Limited, 1983).

The Lang Bay kaolin deposit was discovered during exploration for the germanium-bearing beds. The kaolin deposit occurs within a granodiorite-diorite pluton below the small outlier of sedimentary rocks. Recent palynological analyses of carbonaceous siltstone and claystone samples correlate the Lang Bay sediments with the Extension Formation (Nanaimo Group) of Vancouver Island. The age of these rocks is Early to Middle Campanian (Upper Cretaceous). The entire basin is poorly exposed, being covered by a continuous mantle of glacial till; outcrops are confined to the banks of Lang Creek.

Drilling indicates that the primary kaolin is confined to the eastern margin of the sedimentary basin. The upper part of the kaolin deposit is sedimentary in origin while a significant thickness of kaolinized intrusive rock occurs underneath. The kaolinized zone in the granitic basement is approximately 200 metres wide and extends northwest over a length of more than 2600 metres. The residual kaolin attains a thickness of up to 30 metres. The Cretaceous sediments throughout most of the basin strike northwest and dip approximately 20 degrees southwest, parallel to the paleosurface which floors the basin (i.e. the top of the primary kaolin deposit). There are some indications that the dip of the paleosurface in the area of the deposit is steeper than bedding in the overlying sediments. There is a gradual decrease of kaolinization with depth in the residual deposit. The upper half is characterized by the presence of white, coarser-grained kaolin crystals. With increasing depth the white colour gradually darkens to light grey. Mineralogical examination indicates that unweathered feldspar is present in the lower part of the deposit together with some swelling clays. The drilling programs have outlined measured geological reserves of primary kaolin of approximately 6 million tonnes of raw material with a yield of some 15 per cent kaolin product (Exploration in British Columbia, 1988).

A number of claystone and mudstone beds interbedded with a coarser lithologic unit were intersected during exploration drilling. Preliminary tests reported by Fargo Resources indicate that this usually brown or dark grey-coloured clay and mudstone can be classified commercially as a "medium to high duty" fireclay (Exploration in British Columbia, 1988). These so called "brown beds" are abundant in the Lang Bay basin.

An initial study of the mineralogy, processing possibilities and the properties of recovered kaolin was undertaken at the University of British Columbia. The results established a decrease in kaolin content with increasing depth; the presence of coarse-grained kaolin crystals (up to 9.3 microns) with a brightness of 74.5 to 77.2 per cent in the uppermost part of the deposit; and a fine-grained (less than 1 micron) kaolin with a brightness of 62.9 per cent at greater depth. Bleaching tests indicate that the brightness of kaolin from the deeper parts of the deposit can be significantly improved. Work to date has confirmed that it is feasible to improve the brightness of the Lang Bay kaolin to meet paper-filler specifications (Exploration in British Columbia, 1988).

A pre-feasibility study prepared for Brenda Mines Ltd. and Fargo Resources Ltd. by Kilborn Engineering Ltd. in 1989, concluded that the extraction of the kaolinite is uneconomic because of the high strip ratio (7.6:1). The marketability of the "brown bed" material, which comprises most of the overburden, as a cement additive was therefore examined to enhance the economics of the deposit. The brown bed clay contains low sulphur and low alkaline oxides, making it suitable for the manufacture of cement.

In 1991 and 1992, Lang Bay Resources (formerly Fargo Resources) investigated the possibility of using kaolin as a wood fibre substitute in newsprint. In order to avoid the problem of the high stripping ration, the company also considered "roadheader mining" which could remove the kaolin from underground, instead. During this time a sample was sent for processing to recover the kaolin, using a “sand washing” type operation. The 35.2 tonnes raw sample yielded 5.95 tonnes (dry basis) with a brightness of 63 to 64 per cent (Assessment Report 22518).

In 1999, Home Gold Resources completed a seismic survey and 4 diamond drill holes, totalling 198.9 metres, on the area as the Duck Lake Property. Drilling was confined to the area south east of Hamil Lake. During 2006 through 2012, Home Gold, on the behalf of Electra Gold, completed programs of prospecting, metallurgical testing, geochemical sampling and 5 diamond drill holes, totalling 293.5 metres. The diamond drilling encountered a sequence of kaolinized sandstone and lesser shale.

Weighted average chemistry of the drill holes yielded:


Hole Length SiO2 Al2O3 Alkali (Na2O + K2O)

(No.) (m) (%) (%) (%)

LB-06-01 92.97 62.15 16.01 2.49

LB-06-02 71.62 59.63 15.88 2.38

LB-06-03 51.21 63.03 14.35 2.42

LB-06-04 28.96 62.03 16.16 2.44

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(Assessment Report 29269)

In 2011, two samples were testing for rare-earth elements and these yielded values up to 2.13 grams per tonne germanium, 13.94 grams per tonne gallium, 15.9 grams per tonne scandium, 16.4 grams per tonne yttrium, 16.8 gram per tonne lanthanum and 70 grams per tonne cerium (Assessment Report 32786).

EMPR AR 1949-218; *1959-127-130
EMPR EXPL 1982-149; 1983-212; *1985-B29,B30,160; 1986-A73,C188;
EMPR FIELDWORK *1985, pp. 261-264; 1987 pp. 441-450; 1988 pp. 553-558
EMPR INF CIRC 1987-1, p. 72; 1988-1, pp. 71-73,74; 1989-1, p. 35;
1990-1, p.40; 1994-19, p.16; 1995-1, p.16
EMPR MAP 22; 34; 65, 1989
EMPR MER 1986, p. 72; 1987, pp. 73,74
EMPR OF 1988-13; 1991-23; 1992-1; 1992-9
EMPR PF (Wright Engineers Limited (1983): Lang Bay Germanium Project,
Prefeasibility Study; *Skerl, A.C. (1959): Report on the Germanium
Property of Taiga Mines Limited; Hilchey, G.R. (1959): Progress
Report on the Taiga Mines Limited Property; Hemsworth, F.J.
(1958): Letter Report on Lang Creek Germanium; McKechnie, N.D.
(1959): Letter Report on Lang Creek Germanium; Taiga Mines Limited
claim map (1959); Maps of No. 1-3 showings; News Release, Fargo
Resources Limited-Nov.4, 1987; Fargo Resources Ltd. 1989 Annual
Report; Skeetch map of 1987 drill holes; L. Farris and Colin
Harvey, Lange Bay Kaolin, 1991; Fargo Resources Ltd., Overview of
the Lang Bay Kaolin Project, 1988; Lang Bay Germanium Report,
1986; UBC Report on the Kaolin Lang Bay Deposits, 1987)
EMR MP CORPFILE (Taiga Mines Ltd.; Brenda Mines Ltd.)
Focus on Industrial Minerals, Vol. 3, Issue 1
GSC MAP 1386A; 17-1968
GSC MEM 335, p. 69
GSC OF 611; 643
GSC P 60-1; 68-50; 70-52, p. 21; 91-1A, pp. 229-240
CIM *Vol.79, No.886, Feb. 1986, pp. 92-97; CIM 12th Annual
District Meeting, 1988 (Paper by J.A. Currie)
GCNL #156,#217, 1986; #49,#80,#87,#113,#170,#188,#214,#224,#234,
1987; #33,#51,#154,#246, 1988; #35, 1989; #44(Mar.4),#177(Sept.13),
1991; #110(June 8), 1992
N MINER Oct.1, 1959; Jan.16, 1989
V STOCKWATCH June 12, Aug.1, 1987
VANCOUVER SUN Nov.27, 1987; Feb.11, 1988; May 20, 1989; Nov. 16, 1991
W MINER Vol.32, No.9, Sept. 1959, pp. 30-34
WIN Jan. 1987