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File Created: 24-Jul-85 by BC Geological Survey (BCGS)
Last Edit:  18-Apr-08 by Mandy N. Desautels(MND)

Summary Help Help

NMI 082F13 Au1
BCGS Map 082F092
Status Developed Prospect NTS Map 082F13E
Latitude 49º 59' 04" N UTM 11 (NAD 83)
Longitude 117º 42' 45" W Northing 5537144
Easting 448921
Commodities Gold, Silver, Lead, Zinc, Cadmium, Copper, Tungsten Deposit Types K04 : Au skarn
K02 : Pb-Zn skarn
K05 : W skarn
Tectonic Belt Omineca Terrane Quesnel
Capsule Geology

The property is located at about 2100 metres elevation on the north side of Tillicum Mountain, 11.8 kilometres east of the Lower Arrow Lake community of Burton.

The Tillicum group, comprising the Tillicum, Cultus and Valley View claims, was apparently located in this vicinity. Owners J.G. Reveler and L. Robson carried out exploration work in one or more short drift adits in the period 1917-21. Some 3.6 tons of sorted ore were stockpiled in 1921.

Metavolcanic rocks and a predominant metasedimentary succession form the highly deformed, east-trending Nemo Lakes Belt. To the north and west it is intruded by the Jurassic and/or Cretaceous Goatcanyon-Halifax Creeks quartz monzonite stock, while to the south it is invaded by the Eocene Nemo Lakes quartz monzonite stock. Supracrustal rocks of the Nemo Lakes Belt in the Tillicum Mountain area are dominated by metamorphosed siltstone, calcareous siltstone, arkose, and wacke, with lesser amounts of basalt, tuff, argillite, impure carbonate and marble layers. The supracrustal rocks underwent a post-Lower Jurassic phase of regional metamorphism and folding that predates the Middle to Upper Jurassic intrusion of the monzonitic stocks. This resulted in sillimanite grade metamorphism throughout most of the Nemo Lakes Belt, however, the metamorphic grade is lower around Tillicum Mountain and resulted in the formation of biotite, muscovite, chlorite and amphibole. In addition to the regional metamorphism, the rocks were locally subjected to two episodes of contact metamorphism. The first is associated with swarms of dioritic sills that probably accompanied the regional deformation, the second is hornfelsing related to the intrusion of the large monzonitic stocks and postdates the regional deformation.

On the Tillicum property the metamorphosed sedimentary rocks appear to correlate with the Lower and Middle Jurassic Archibald and Hall formations and the metamorphosed volcanic rocks with the older Lower Jurassic Elise Formation. All formations belong to the Lower Jurassic Rossland Group. These country rocks are intruded by swarms of deformed, often schistose feldspar porphyritic diorite to quartz diorite sills that vary from 1 to over 100 metres in width. These intrusive rocks are widely distributed and are spatially and probably genetically related to gold-rich skarn mineralization on the Tillicum property. The country rocks immediately adjacent to the sills are often weakly hornfelsed. Locally the margins of some diorite sills and country rock adjacent to them are overprinted with skarn alteration.

At the Heino-Money zone, stratabound gold-bearing siliceous calc-silicate skarn alteration is hosted in a thin, wedge-shaped package of basaltic tuff and tuffaceous sedimentary rocks which is bounded to the west by metabasalts and to the east by a large, altered feldspar porphyritic diorite body. The skarn is pinkish-green and is generally well layered with subparallel thin quartz veins and variable amounts of sulphides. The skarn assemblage includes quartz, tremolite-actinolite, clinozoisite, plagioclase, diopside, biotite, garnet and microcline, with minor amounts of sericite and carbonate. Free gold occurs as fine to coarse disseminations and fracture fillings within and along walls of the quartz sulphide veins; gold is generally associated with pyrrhotite, pyrite, galena and sphalerite. The zone is cut by north-trending, steeply dipping lamprophyre dykes which postdate both the skarn development and sulphide mineralization. A polished section study of this mineralization show that gold grains are generally free, but may also be intimately associated with pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, sphalerite and pyrite-marcasite. Some pyrrhotite grains are rimmed with colloform pyrite-marcasite while others contain small masses of hematite and graphitic material. Minor to trace amounts of tetrahedrite, chalcopyrite and possibly electrum also occur. Polished thin section studies and geochemical studies suggest that the mineralizing process at the Heino-Money zone involved two phases of precious metal deposition. The first phase included the introduction of gold, arsenopyrite and possibly sphalerite, accompanied by the crystallization of quartz, carbonate and calc-silicate minerals. This was followed by the deposition of argentiferous galena and the continued introduction of arsenopyrite and sphalerite. Gold and silver-bearing horizons are present in the skarns at the Heino-Money zone but they do not occur together. Silver is probably carried in galena.

High-grade gold was discovered in the "Money Pit" in September 1980 by Arnold and Elaine Gustafson, of Burton, on ground held as the Wolf, Hugh, Sandy and Near claim groups (12 units). Esperanza Explorations Ltd and Welcome North Mines Ltd., as a joint venture, optioned 100 per cent interest in the property from the Gustafson's by a September 20, 1980 agreement, subject to a percentage of net smelter returns. The existing claims and adjacent ground was over staked as the Til 1-4 claims (72 units). Work in 1981 included geochemical and geophysical surveys and trenching. A bulk sample of 58 tonnes shipped from the Money Pit averaged 78.8 grams per tonne gold.

Welcome North withdrew from the joint venture in March 1982. La Teko Resources Ltd., on June 23, 1982, acquired an option to purchase a 50.4 per cent share interest in Esperanza Explorations prior to December 31, 1984 for $5,125,000. Additional staking expanded the property to some 237 units. Exploration activity in 1982 included 1128 metres of diamond drilling in 16 holes on the Heino-Money zone, 8 holes on the East Ridge zone and 1 hole on the Jenny zone. In 1983 a 60.9-metre crosscut adit was driven on the East Ridge zone and further geochemical surveys and trenching carried out. Diamond drilling was done in 18 holes on the Heino-Money zone. Drilling to date outlined a drill indicated 36,287 tonnes at 20.5 grams per tonne gold and a total inferred potential of 90,720 tonnes (George Cross News Letter, February 28, 1984). Drilling in 1983 totalled 2319 metres in 38 holes.

In 1984 a 60-metre adit was driven into the upper part of the Heino-Money zone; a 2268-tonne bulk sample was shipped to the Dankoe mill at Keremeos in 1985. Further diamond drilling was done in 5 holes on the East Ridge zone (total 25 holes to date). Based on work to date the East Zone has an inferred 4,536,000 tonnes at 1.7 grams per tonne gold (Northern Miner, November 15, 1984). La Teko provided financing of exploration to the end of 1985 ($2.28 million) to earn a 39.6 per cent interest in Esperanza. La Teko was unable to provide further financing and the 1982 option agreement expired at the end of 1985.

The Heino-Money zone has been explored by drilling and underground exploration and has a reserve potential of 45,355 tonnes grading 34.28 grams per tonne gold. Within this reserve, a mining reserve has been calculated to be 15,874 tonnes with a diluted grade of 34.28 grams per tonne gold using a 11.99 grams per tonne gold cutoff grade. The mining reserve is outlined in four south raking shoots that occur in a near vertical gold-bearing skarn structure which averages about 2 metres in width along a strike length of approximately 200 metres and a vertical extent of 100 metres. Additional reserve potential occurs between the delineated shoots as well as along strike and depth projections of the skarn structure (Assessment Report 19437). Columbia Gold Mines (1991), formerly Esperanza, estimated reserves of the Heino-Money zone to be 13,600 tonnes grading 34.79 grams per tonne gold (Information Circular 1993-13, page 17).

The structure on the property is complex and is dominated by steep angle normal and reverse faults. Most faults have little offsets, however, several faults with major displacements divide the property into fault-bounded blocks. The metamorphic fabric of the rock closely parallels the bedding planes with minor or parasitic folding only very rarely observed. The Heino-Money zone is offset by a series of left-lateral, steep angle northeast striking faults that have displacements up to 9.0 metres. Within a 500 metre radius of the Heino-Money zone, three other significant mineralized zones have been discovered. These are the East Ridge zone, the Jenny zone and the Blue zone.

The East Ridge zone is 300 metres east of the Heino-Money zone. Gold mineralization occurs in a blanket-like zone that straddles the contact between porphyritic diorite and meta-arkose, quartzite, siltstone and minor argillite. The gold-bearing, near-vertical calc-silicate skarn structures occur within a 9.1 to 24.3 metre zone that strikes northeast and dips 70 degrees northwest. The skarn structures have widths that vary from 1.5 to 4.6 metres, but average 2.1 metres. The East Ridge zone has been traced by drilling for 457 metres along strike, 365 metres downdip at an average width of 1.5 metres. The East Ridge zone is comprised of two parallel upper skarn structures 0.9 to 1.5 metres thick and a lower skarn structure. Gold occurs in randomly distributed high grade pockets separated by areas of lower grade material. Within the zone, gold-bearing sulphide mineralization consists of pyrrhotite, pyrite-marcasite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena and native gold with traces of tetrahedrite.

Exploratory underground drifting (300 metres) and drilling on the East Ridge zone has resulted in indicated reserves of 1,184,672 tonnes grading 5.82 grams per tonne gold. Within this reserve are measured geological reserves of 238,567 tonnes grading 13.36 grams per tonne gold using a minimum width of 1.5 metres and a 6.85 grams per tonne gold cutoff grade (Assessment Report 19437). Columbia Gold Mines (1991) estimated reserves of the East Ridge zone to be 440,000 tonnes grading 10.26 grams per tonne gold (Information Circular

The Jenny zone is 150 metres north and 100 metres lower in elevation than the Heino-Money zone. The Jenny zone consists of alternating bands of glassy quartz and sericitic quartzite overlain by pyritic, black, fine-grained thinly bedded argillite. Very fine-grained, galena, sphalerite and pyrite occur in the quartzite with euhedral magnetite and pyrite in the glassy quartz. Occasional cavity fillings of gold-bearing chalcedonic quartz and actinolite- rich bands are also evident. A chip sample across 0.4 metres returned 12.9 grams per tonne gold and 19.8 grams per tonne silver (Assessment Report 11161).

The Blue zone is 280 metres north-northeast of the Heino-Money zone. Three pits expose pyrite, pyrrhotite, galena and sphalerite massive stringers and lenses within a fractured and sheared thinly bedded quartz-biotite gneiss. Gold values range to 6.9 grams per tonne (Assessment Report 11161). Just above the pits, scheelite occurs disseminated in a siliceous matrix and along fractures.

As a result of mining the Heino-Money zone, a total of 5503 tonnes of ore with an estimated head grade of 24.4 grams per tonne gold was shipped to the Goldstream mill (082M 141) for processing. About 102,443 grams of gold and 149,546 grams of silver were recovered into concentrates which have been shipped to Japan for smelting (George Cross News Letter No. 237 (December 10), 1993).

In 1997, AMT Resources Ltd. worked the property. Mustang Gold is acquiring the property (Northern Miner, January 18, 1999).

EMPR AR 1917-F175; 1919-N160; 1920-N135; 1921-G174
EMPR ASS RPT 7909, 9455, *11161, *12269, *15700, *19437, 25004
EMPR BC METAL MM00136, MM01434
EMPR EXPL 1980-84; 1981-40; 1982-11,17,63; 1983-84; 1984-xvi;
1985-A38; 1986-A15,A58,A59; 1987-A6,A64
EMPR FIELDWORK 1980, p.84; 1981, pp. 39-45; 1983, pp. 19-21; 1984,
pp. 23-51; *1985, pp. 37-49; 1986, pp. 19,21; 1987, pp. 5,67-70,
79, 277
EMPR INF CIRC 1984-1, pp. 20,21,25; 1985-1, pp. 5,39; 1986-1,
pp. 41,43,47; 1987-1, pp. 17,29,55,56; 1988-1, pp. 4,19,59,60;
1988-10, p. 5; 1990-1; 1993-13, p. 17; 1994-1
EMPR IR 1984-3, p. 109
EMPR MAP 65 (1989)
EMPR MIN STATS 1985, p. 50; 1980-1992, p. 12
EMPR OF 1991-17; 1992-1; 1994-1
EMPR P *1989-3, pp. 44-49
EMPR PF (Roberts, W. and McClintock, J. (1985): Gold Mineralization at
the Tillicum Gold Property; 1989 "Snapshot" Review Form; 1988 Snap
Shot Review Progress Report on the Tillicum Gold Property; Notes
from CIM District 6, Kamloops, 1984; Columbia Gold Mines Ltd.,
May, 1990; Abstract by D.M. Peterson)
EMR MP CORPFILE (Esperanza Explorations Ltd.; Welcome North Mines
Ltd.; La Teko Resources Ltd.; Columbia Gold Mines Ltd.)
GSC BULL 161, p. 40
GSC MAP 3-1956; 1090A; 1176A
CIM Sept., 1983
CJES Vol.18, 1981, pp. 944-958
GCNL #218,#221, 1980; #229, 1981; #137,#150,#168,#177,#182,#193,#200,
#204,#211,#215,#242, 1982; #24,#26,#64,#117,#140,#166,#168,#187,
#198,#205, 1983; #41,#125,#145,#181,#214, 1984; #92,#139,#169,
1985; #4,#6,#105,#155,#157,#184,#219, 1986; #81,#124,#130,#195,
#201,#231, 1987; #37,#131,#133,#145,#150,#175,#188,#197,#208,#211,
#221, 1988; #20(Jan.30),#72,#86(May 4),#134(July 13),#156(Aug.15),
#160(Aug.21),#163(Aug.24),#208(Oct.30), 1989; #5(Jan.8),#110(June
8), #228(Nov.26), 1992; #88(May7),#144(Jul.28),#147(Aug.3),#211
(Nov.3), #237(Dec.10), 1993; #118(June 21), 1994
IPDM Nov., 1985; Nov./Dec., 1982
N MINER Dec.10, 1981; Aug.12, Sept.8,23, Oct.14, Nov.4,18,
1982; Feb.17, June 23, July 28, Sept.23, Oct.20, 1983; Jan.5,
Apr.11, June 21, Aug.2, Oct.4, Nov.22, 1984; Sept.23, 1985;
Sept.8, 1986; Apr.27, July 20, 1987; Mar.7, Apr.18, July 4,
Oct.17, 1988; Feb.6, May 1, July 17, Nov.13, 1989;
Oct.14, 1991; June 15, 1992; May 17, Aug.16, Sept.13, Dec.20,
1993; Oct.23, 1995; Jan.18, 1999
NAGMIN June 7, 1985; Feb.15, Mar.30, July 6, 1984; June 1, 1983
NW PROSP 1985 (Winter) pp. 8,9
V STOCKWATCH Jan., Apr.22, May 22, Aug.17, Oct.9, Dec.1, 1987
W MINER Apr., 1984
Placer Dome File